Remnants of religious thinking in Albanian Socialist Art

Bule Naipi's blouse

Bule Naipi’s blouse

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Remnants of religious thinking in Albanian Socialist Art

The contents of a small display case in the Gjirokaster Prison Museum pose a question of significance for an understanding of Socialist Realist Art in Albania in the past and the challenges facing those who want to create an art that is free from the superstitions and negative influence of capitalism (as well as that from previous repressive social systems) in the future.

One of the problems that all societies that have tried to build Socialism have had to face is the problem of the old ideas preventing the development and growth of the new. However fervent a revolutionary might be the influence of the old repressive system will always be there, in the way we act, speak and think. That, in itself, isn’t a problem. Just as we can’t control the way we look we can’t totally control the influence that the traditions and the culture under which we grew up have upon us, even though we might not like it. Those old ideas and traditions only become a problem if they prevent us from looking at the world in a different light under a system that seeks to end oppression and exploitation forever.

The revolution can change the structure and direction of society it is for us to change ourselves.

This is the reason for the ‘cultural revolutions’ that have taken place, to a greater or lesser extent, in all societies that considered themselves Socialist. That in China, between 1966 and 1976, described as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, is the most well known due to the dominance it had in society in the final years of Chairman Mao‘s life but they also took place in other countries seeking to build Socialism.

In Albania the cultural revolution manifested itself in a number of ways. The construction of the lapidars which commemorated those who died in the struggle for Liberation against Italian and then German fascism, together with those that sought to celebrate some of the achievements of the revolution were all part of that. As were the paintings that were produced, a great number of examples of which were on display in the National Art Gallery in Tirana in 2021. Many others can be seen in various locations, museums and art galleries throughout the country but many are also being allowed to fall into a sad state of repair.

That’s unfortunate for those who like and appreciate such works of art but at the same time their demise is all part of the class war and at the moment, in Albania, it is capitalism which is the ascendant. The lack of care of the lapidars, sometimes to the extent of wanton political vandalism, is also a reflection of society as it is and not as we would like it to be.

The declaration of Albania as an atheist state in 1968 was also part of Albania’s ‘cultural revolution’. Although, so far, I have come across few examples of the art produced that were part of that anti-religion campaign the painting by M Jorgji, created in 1975, is a good example of how the campaign was carried out.

Anti-Orthodox Church

Anti-Orthodox Church

An Orthodox priest is surrounded by villagers and he is being forced to face his crimes, and the abuses of power, he had inflicted upon, in this case, the rights of women and girls. The somewhat long slogan written on the red banner at the top says it all;

The whole Party and the country must rise to their feet, burn fiercely and behead anyone who tramples on the sacred law of the Party for the protection of the rights of women and girls.

This was a direct attack upon the church that had been using, and abusing, its power for centuries and was an important, not to say crucial, aspect of the struggle against superstition and metaphysical ideas. However, that shouldn’t have been the be all and end all of the campaign.

Such a cultural revolution has to change the thinking of the population as a whole – and that includes those artists whose task it was to promote a new view of the world.

However, some of those artists, either consciously or unconsciously, carried their old, out-dated ideas into their work in the new society. And, to the best of my knowledge, such ‘transgressions’ (if I might use that loaded term) were either not recognised or certainly not openly criticised and publicly exposed.

Here we will look at an example of where this ‘old thinking’ manifested itself in few examples related to the murder of two Partisan women by the the German Nazis in the town of Gjirokaster in 1944.

Bule’s blouse

I don’t know if I’ve missed it in the past but on my most recent visit to the Gjirokaster Prison Museum there was a small glass case which contained a colourful woman’s blouse.

This is displayed with the label which says in Albanian;

Me keto rroba fshataret e Lazaratit e maskuan Bule Naipin ne fshat me 1944 per to mbrojtur nga Nazistet Gjermane

in English;

With these clothes the Lazarat villagers disguised Bule Naipi in the village in 1944 to protect her from the German Nazis

I’m assuming that this display case, with its arrangement and label were produced during the period of Socialist construction in Albania, to label seems to indicate so.

This blouse is displayed just under the sculpture, made by Odhise Paskali, of a twin bust of the two murdered women. In the case, towards the top, is a short piece of knotted rope.

And its the rope that introduces an interesting aspect of Albanian Socialist Realist sculpture (less so in the paintings) which demonstrates the task that a future Socialist society has to deal with when it comes to matters of culture.

By including the rope – in the glass case with the blouse, around the necks of the two young women in the sculpture above the case, as well as the statue that used to stand (and should be returned once the work is completed) in Sheshi Çerçiz Topulli – there is a very clear reference to (Catholic) religious art going back centuries.

In countless Catholic churches, throughout the world, you will encounter images of the saints together with the instruments of their torture and eventual death. The prime, and ubiquitous, example of this is, of course, Christ on the cross.

And this ‘tradition’ seeped into the work of some of the painters and sculptors when they came to produce works of art which I have included in the blog under the heading ‘Socialist Realism’.

A number of the works of Odhise Paskali contain such religious imagery – the most notable example being his sculpture in the Përmet Martyrs’ Cemetery. Here we have a group of three Partisans, one mortally wounded and a male and a female Partisan tending to and comforting him. This is an EXACT replica of countless images of the Deposition of Christ from the Cross as seen in many churches, especially in Spain and Italy – those being the most Catholic of the European states.

Now it can be said, and it was probably why he got away with it, that Paskali was already a mature, experienced and renowned sculptor before the Liberation of Albania in 1944. He was born in 1903 and even before the establishment of Socialism his work was on display in various locations in Albania.

His major works (many of which are included in the Albanian Lapidar Survey) are;

ALS 123 – Nationalist Fighter – Korça (1937)

ALS 244 – Comrades – Martyrs’ Cemetery – Përmet (1964)

ALS 246 – Monument dedicated to the creation of peoples’ power – Përmet (1964)

ALS 276 – Monument to the Martyrs of Kolonje – Ersekë (1938)

ALS 590 – Monument dedicated to the Assembly of Lezha – Lezha (1968)

Bust to Vojo Kushi in Tirana

The statue of Cerciz Topulli (1932, bronze) which stands in the square that bears his name in Gjirokaster Old Town.

The large ‘Skenderberg’ statue (bronze), 1968, in Tirana main square, in collaboration with Janaq Paço and Andrea Mano.

He also created ‘The Triumphant Partisan’ (1968). This depicts a Nazi soldier being forced to the ground by an Albanian Communist Partisan. The original is at the Mauthausan Concentration Camp in Austria – where many Albanians were taken if captured. There’s a copy in the Castle Museum in Gjirokaster.

As well as the bust of ‘The Two Heroines‘ – Bule Naipi and Persefoni Kokëdhima.

Not all of these are loaded with religious imagery but it was certainly a not uncommon aspect of his work.

And this religious influence can be seen in other, much later lapidars created by younger artists who had been brought up and educated under the Socialist system. One clear example of this is the statue at the Lushnjë Martyrs’ Cemetery, created by Maksim Bushi in 1984. Bushi wasn’t born until 4 years after Liberation but take away the gun and change the uniform to a blue cloak and you have the Madonna and Child – again very common in Catholic churches.

So this just goes to illustrate the struggle that is necessary (and the time required) for the working class to develop a body of art that truly represents their interests, clear of any metaphysical content. A new type of art, with its own symbolism and establishing its own traditions.

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Writings of leaders of the Communist Party of China

9th Congress of the CPC

9th Congress of the CPC

More on China …..

Writings of leaders of the Communist Party of China

Multiple Authors

Ten Glorious Years – 1949-1959, FLP, Peking, 1960, 384 pages. Essays by 19 important Chinese leaders (other than Mao) on the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, including: Liu Shao-chi, Chou En-lai, Lin Piao, Teng Hsiao-ping, Soong Ching Ling, Chen Yi, Li Fu-chun, Ho Lung, Li Hsien-nien, Ko Ching-shih, Li Ching-chuan, Ulanfu, Kang Sheng, Po I-po, Wang Chia-hsing, Liu Lan-tao, Teng Tse-hui, Nieh Jung-chen, and Lo Jui-ching.

Chen Boda [Chen Po-ta] (1904-1989)

One of the prime leaders of the Cultural Revolution – might have been attacked by being close to Lin Piao by the right in the Party, exemplified by Chou En-lai. Tried by the ‘capitalist-roaders’ after the death of Chairman Mao for his connection and friendship with the so-called ‘Gang of Four’ – the revolutionaries in the Party.

Notes on Mao Tse-tung’s ‘Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan’, Chen Po-ta, FLP, Peking 1966, 66 pages. Written in the spring of 1944. The 3rd Chinese edition appeared in 1953, and this is the 2nd revised English translation of that edition.

Mao Tse-tung on the Chinese Revolution, Chen Po-ta, FLP, Peking 1953, 96 pages. Written in April 1951.

Stalin and the Chinese Revolution, Chen Po-ta, April 21, 1952, FLP, Peking 1953, 68 pages. Focuses on Stalin’s contributions in the 1920s to the development of the Chinese Revolution.

A Study of Land Rent in Pre-Liberation China, Chen Po-ta, FLP, Peking 1966, 120 pages. 2nd edition, revised translation. This work was originally written in 1945-46, and later revised and published in its first Chinese edition in 1952. The first English edition appeared in 1958.

Explanatory Notes to the Draft Decisions on Agricultural Co-operation, Chen Po-ta, FLP, Peking 1956. A speech delivered on October 4, 1955 at the Sixth Plenary Session (Enlarged) of the Seventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Included in the pamphlet Decisions on Agricultural Co-operation, on pages 35-55.

Yugoslav Revisionism – Product of Imperialist Policy, Chen Po-ta, FLP, Peking 1958, 17 pages. An article which originally appeared (in Chinese) in Hongqi [Red Flag], June 1 1958. This English version is from the pamphlet In Refutation of Modern Revisionism.

Chen Yi (1901-1972)

Foreign Minister Chen Yi’s Statement Refuting Dulles’ Speech at the U.N. General Assembly, September 20 1958., FLP, Peking 1958, 83 pages. Included in the pamphlet Oppose U.S. Military Provocations in the Taiwan Straits Area – A selection of important documents, pages 9-13.

Kang Sheng (1898-1975)

Yugoslav Revisionism is just what U.S. Imperialism needs, Kang Sheng, FLP, Peking 1958, 13 pages. An article which originally appeared in Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], June 14 1958. This English version is from the pamphlet In Refutation of Modern Revisionism.

Wang Jiaxiang [Wang Chia-hsiang]

In Refutation of Modern Revisionism’s Reactionary Theory of the State, Wang Chia-hsiang, FLP, Peking 1958, 19 pages. An article which originally appeared in Hongqi [Red Flag], June 16 1958. This English version is from the pamphlet In Refutation of Modern Revisionism.

Wang Ming (1904-1974)

The Revolutionary Movement in the Colonial Countries, Wang Ming, Workers Library Publishers, New York, 1935, 68 pages. The revised copy of the speech given on August 7 1935 in Moscow at the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International.

China can win! The new stage in the aggression of Japanese Imperialism and the new period in the struggle of the Chinese People, Wang Ming, Workers Library Publishers, New York, 1937, 52 pages.

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Communist Party of China (CPC) – history, resolutions and documents

In a Yenan cave house - Hsin Mang

In a Yenan cave house

More on China …..

Communist Party of China (CPC) – history, resolutions and documents

Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party, adopted by the Enlarged Seventh Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on April 20, 1945, 72 pages. This is the revised translation from the Appendix to the 3rd edition of the pamphlet Our Study and the Current Situation, by Mao Tse-tung. (Peking: FLP, 1962)

Thirty Years of the Communist Party of China: An Outline History, by Hu Chiao-mu, (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1951), 100 pages.

Documents of the National Conference of the Communist Party of China, held in March 1955. Includes: the Communiqué, the resolution on the draft of the first 5-year plan, the resolution on the anti-Party bloc of Kao Kang and Jao Shu-shih, and the resolution on the establishment of central and local control committees. (Peking: Oct. 1955), 68 pages.

Documents of the Sixth Plenary Session (Enlarged) of the Seventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, a supplement to People’s China, Dec. 1, 1955, 24 pages.

Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Volume 1: Documents, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 332 pages.

Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Volume 2: Speeches, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 388 pages.

Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Volume 3: Greetings From Fraternal Parties, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 266 pages.

Constitution of the Communist Party of China and Report on the Revision of the Constitution of the CPC by Teng Hsiao-ping. This is the Party Constitution adopted by the Eighth National Congress on Sept. 26, 1956. The report of the the revision of the Constitution was delivered by Teng Hsiao-ping [Deng Xiaoping] at that Congress on Sept. 16, 1956. (Peking: FLP, 1956), 118 pp.

Second Session of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, seven reports and resolutions, including Report on the Work of the Central Committee of the CCP to the Second Session of the Eighth National Congress by Liu Shao-chi. (Peking: FLP, 1958), 99 pages.

Training Successors for the Revolution is the Party’s Strategic Task, 3 articles on this topic including the title article by An Tzu-wen from Hongqi, Nos. 17-18, 1964. (Peking: FLP, 1965), 68 pages.

Absorb Proletarian Fresh Blood – An Important Question in Party Consolidation, Hongqi [Red Flag] editorial, #4, Oct. 14, 1968. (Peking: FLP, 1968), 34 pages.

Communique of the Enlarged Twelfth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, adopted on Oct. 31, 1968. (Peking: FLP, 1968), 32 pages.

The Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), including the Report to the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China delivered by Lin Piao; The Constitution of the Communist Party of China; lists of members of the Central Committee and the Politburo; and several press communiques. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 206 pages. Lin Piao’s Report issued as a separate small pamphlet, 112 pages.

The Constitution of the Communist Party of China, adopted by the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, April 4, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 52 pages.

Hold Aloft the Banner of Unity of the Party’s Ninth Congress and Win Still Greater Victories, editorial of Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jifangjun Bao, June 9, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 26 pages.

Communists Should Be the Advanced Elements of the Proletariat – In Commemoration of the 49th Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China. (Peking: FLP, 1970), 20 pages.

Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Communist Party of China: 1921-1971, (Peking: FLP, 1971), 60 pages.

The Tenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), (Peking: FLP, 1973), 138 pages.

The Eleventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), (Peking: FLP, 1977), 270 pages.

Documents of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee – September 1956-April 1969, Union Research Institute, Hong Kong, 1974

A collection of documents (not complete) covering an important period of the development of Socialism in the People’s Republic of China. Large files hence divided into a number of parts.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

Part 6

Part 7

Resolutions of the Tsunyi Conference, Jerome Ch’en, The China Quarterly, No 40, October-December, 1969, pp 1-38, SOAS, London.

Commentaries on the Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China and the 20th Congress of the CPSU, Irish Communist Organisation, Cork, 1970, 20 pages. Policy statement No. 3.

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