Soviet Society

A Collective Farm Festival

A Collective Farm Festival

More on the USSR

Soviet Society

A view of different aspects of life when the people of the USSR were attempting to construct a new society in a hostile world of capitalism and imperialism – which used every opportunity to undermine the task of the revolutionary workers and peasants in the country that covered one-sixth of the world’s land mass.

The Marriage Laws of Soviet Russia, complete text of first code of laws of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic dealing with Civil Status and Domestic Relations, Marriage, the Family and Guardianship, Soviet Russia Pamphlets No. 2, The Russian Soviet Government Bureua, New York, 1921, 49 pages.

Red Star in Samarkand, Anna Louise Strong, Coward McCann, New York, 1929, 329 pages.

The Soviet Five-year Plan and its effect on world trade, HR Knickerbocker, Bodley Head, London, 1931, 245 pages.

From the First to the Second Five-Year Plan, a Symposium, J Stalin, V Molotov, L Kaganovich, K Voroshilov and others, Co-operative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow, 1933, 490 pages.

In Place of Profit, social incentives in the Soviet Union, Harry F Ward, Scibner’s Sons, New York, 1933, 460 pages.

Foreign trade in the USSR, JD Yanson, The New Soviet Library, Gollanz, London, 1934, 175 pages.

Buryat-Mongolia, International Publishers, New York, 1936, 56 pages.

Soviet Russia and Religion, Corliss Lamont, International pamphlets No 49, International Publishers, New York, 1936, 23 pages.

The Reconstruction of Moscow, Lev Perchik, Co-operative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow. 1936, 72 pages.

Soviet Communism, a new civilisation, Volume One, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Scibners, New York, 1936, 528 pages.

Soviet Communism, a new civilisation, Volume Two, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Scibners, New York, 1936, 645 pages.

Handbook on the Soviet Trade Unions, for workers’ delegations, edited by A Lozovsky, Cooperative Publishing Company of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow, 1937, 144 pages.

Soviet Democracy, Pat Sloan, Left Book Club, Victor Gollanz, London, 1937, 288 pages.

Socialised Medicine in the Soviet Union, Henry E Sigerist, Left Book Club, Victor Gollanz, London, 1937, 397 pages.

The position of women in the USSR, GN Serebrennikov, Victor Gollanz, London, 1937, 117 pages.

A Visit to Russia, Report of Durham Miners Association, 1937, 56 pages.

From Tsardom to the Stalin Constitution, WP and Zelda Cpates, Aleen and Unwin, london, 1938, 332 pages.

The Moscow Subway, Y Abakumov, FLPH, Moscow, 1939, 24 pages.

Universities in the USSR, ULF Pamphlet No 7, University Labour Federation, London, 1939, 20 pages.

The State Farms of the USSR, P Lobanov, People’s Commissar of State Farms of the USSR and Member of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, FLPH, Moscow, 1939, 32 pages.

Soviet Students, S Kaftanov, Chairman of the Committee on Higher Education of the Council of Peoples’ Commissars of the USSR, FLPH, Moscow, 1939, 32 pages.

Sport In the USSR, A Starostin, FLPH, Moscow, 1939, 31 pages. (Apologies, bad scan. Pages out of sequence.)

State Farms of the USSR, P Lobanov, People’s Commissar of State Farms of the USSR, FLPH, 1939, 32 pages.

Light on Moscow, DN Pritt, Penguin, London, 1940, 223 pages.

USSR speaks for itself, No 1, Industry, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1941, 95 pages.

USSR speaks for itself, No 2, Agriculture and Transport, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1941, 104 pages.

USSR Speaks for itself, No 3, Democracy in Practice, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1941, 104 pages.

How the Soviet State is run, Pat Sloan, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1941, 128 pages.

Marriage and The Family in the USSR, D Erde, Soviet Booklets, No. 2, Soviet War News, London, 1942, p16.

The Russians are people, Anna Louise Strong, Cobbett Publishing, London, 1943, 202 pages.

Peoples of the USSR, Anna Louise Strong, Macmillan, New York, 1944, 246 pages.

The truth about Soviet Union, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, with an essay on the Webbs by Bernard Shaw, Longmans, London, 1944, 79 pages.

Soviet Farmers, Anna Louise Strong, Pocket Library of the USSR, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, New York?, n.d., 1944?, 47 pages.

Soviet Local Government, the administration of village and city explained, rates and taxes, elections, gas, water, electricity and other municipal services, Don Brown, Russia Today, London, 1945, 24 pages. (Apologies, bad scan, pages out of order.)

USSR, her life and her people, Maurice Dobb, University of London Press, 1945, 139 pages.

The Pattern of Soviet Power, Edgar Snow, Random House, New York, 1945, 219 pages.

These are the Russians, Richard Lauterback, Harper, New York, 1945, 368 pages.

Introducing the USSR, Beatrice King, Pitman, London, 1946, 112 pages.

Soviet Democracy, Harry F. Ward, Soviet Russia Today, New York, 1947, 48 pages.

Soviet Communism, A New Civilization, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Longman’s, London, 1947, 1007 pages.

The Right-Wing Social-Democrats Today, O Kuusinen, FLPH, Moscow, 1948, 35 pages.

Industry in the USSR, E Lokshin, FLPH, Moscow, 1948, 170 pages.

The Soviet way of life, an examination, Maurice Lovell, Methuen, London, 1948, 213 pages.

The Law of the Soviet State, Andrei Yanuaryevich Vyshinskiy, Macmillan Company, New York, 1948, 749 pages.

Man and Plan in Soviet Economy, Andrew Rothstein, digitised version, first published in London 1948, 145 pages.

Soviet Economic Development since 1917, Maurice Dobb, Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1948, 487 pages.

Industry in the USSR, E Lokshin, FLPH, Moscow, 1948, 170 pages.

Dialectical Materialism and Historical Science, VP Volgin, np., 1949, 5 pages.

Across the map of the USSR, N Mikhailov, FLPH, Moscow, 1949, 344 pages.

Fulfilment of the USSR State Plan for 1949, communique of the Central Statistical Administrration of the USSR Council of Ministers, Soviet News, London, 1950, 22 pages.

The role of the State in the Socialist Transformation of the economy of the USSR, KV Ostroviyanov, FLPH, Moscow, 1950, 11 pages.

The Soviet Union Today, a scientist’s impressions, SM Manton, with an foreword by Lord Boyd-Orr, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1952, 133 pages.

Questions and answers on Property (Public and Private) in the USSR, Soviet News, London, 1954, 24 pages.

Soviet Law and Soviet Society, ethical foundations of the Soviet structure, mechanism of the planned economy, duties and rights of peasants and workers, rulers and toilers, the family and the state, Soviet justice, national minorities and their autonomy, the People’s Democracies and the Soviet pattern for a united world, George Guins, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1954, 457 pages.

The Soviet Regime, Communism in Practice, WW Kulski, Syracuse University Press, New York, 1954, 807 pages.

Education in the USSR, ASYFA, n.d., n.p., 12 pages. (Apologies, bad scan, pages all out of sequence.)

Questions and answers on Working Conditions in Soviet Industry, Soviet News, London, 1954, 30 pages.

Engineering progress in the USSR, A Zvorykin, FLPH, Moscow, 1955, 80 pages.

Problems and Achievements of Soviet Historical Science, abridged from the brief survey presented to the International Congress in Rome in September 1955, AL Sidorov, Society for Cultural Relations with the USSR, London, 1955, 13 pages.

Soviet civilization, Corliss Lamont, Philosophical Library, New York, 1955, 447 pages.

Soviet Economic Development since 1917, Maurice Dobb, International Publishers, New York, 1966 (reprint of 1948 original), 515 pages.

Jews in the Soviet Union – Fact versus Fiction, British Soviet Friendship Society, London, 1971, 4 pages.

Fraud, famine and fascism, the Ukrainian genocide myth from Hitler to Harvard, Douglas Tottle, Progress Books, Toronto, 1987, 167 pages.

Anton Semenovich Makarenko

Was a Ukrainian and Soviet educator, social worker and writer, became the most influential educational theorist in the Soviet Union.

Lectures to Parents, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 1961, 30 pages. These texts are lectures that were given by Makarenko over the radio in 1937. They were published in the Literaturnaia Gazetta after he died in 1939, and also in the Collected Works of Makarenko, Vol. 4, 1951.

A Book for Parents, FLPH, Moscow, 1954, 410 pages.

Workers control and socialist democracy, The Soviet experience, Carmen Sirianni, Verso, London, 1982, 437 pages.

Road to Life, Part 1, n.p., n.d., 282 pages.

Road to Life, an epic of education, volume 2, FLPH, Moscow, 1955, 179 pages. Online Version: A. S. Makarenko Reference Archive (marxists.org) 2002.

Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko, an analysis of his educational ideas in the context of Soviet Society, Frederic Lilge, University of California, Berkeley, 1958, 52 pages.

More on the USSR

The Socialist Cultural Revolution and the People’s National Culture

Myrteza Fushekati - Before the demonstration

Myrteza Fushekati – Before the demonstration

More on Albania ……

The reproduction of this article is part of an ongoing, occasional series of arguments in support of the Cultural Revolution in the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania from the late 1960s through the 1970s. A previous article was an excerpt from a report by Enver Hoxha.

The Socialist Cultural Revolution and the People’s National Culture

by Professor Zija Xholi

The creation of a new culture, the spreading of it among the broad masses, the revolutionary ideological formation of the working people, is one of the most fundamental tasks of the construction of socialism and, at the same time, one of the greatest achievements following the people’s revolution.

More than three decades have passed since the day when our people, led by the Party of Labour of Albania, embarked on the road of the cultural revolution – sufficient time to draw up some conclusions and to discover some of its distinctive characteristics.

The first characteristic of our cultural revolution, that which immediately strikes the eye from analysis of the factors which have conditioned its success, is that it began and developed as a consequence of the socialist revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat led by the Communist Party.

Second, a characteristic of the cultural revolution, one brilliant result of it, is the free participation, in ever growing proportions of the broad masses of the people in the frontal progress of technology, science, art and culture in general. The creative capacities, the talents of the people, once hampered and stifled, are now able to express themselves and develop freely. Through their efforts and talent, the masses have become the decisive factor of the cultural revolution which is taking place in our country.

The ultimate reason for the unprecedented extension of the decisive role of the masses in the development of culture too, should be sought in the elimination of oppression and the exploitation of man by man, as well as in the place the masses occupy in the system of socialist material production, where they are not only the decisive productive force but also the decisive responsible, organizing and directing force as well. Socialism stripped work of its drudgery once and for all and restored to it all its intrinsic moral and intellectual values. The creative activity in the most varied fields of art, in song, dance, theatre, variety, in which thousands of workers and peasants, young men and young women take part, most of them without training in art schools is evidence of the great art latent in the bosom of the people, of the marvellous artistic talents of our people which were waiting for the moment when they could burst free and pour out in a torrent.

At all times our people have been creative and they continue to create today, but in the conditions of the socialist construction, their creative works are radically different from those of the past. Freed from oppression and exploitation, today, our people enjoy ever increasing well-being, have more free time at their disposal, and this allows them to concern themselves more and more with the problems of culture. The principle that before you can philosophize you must have food and drink, is of special importance in this field. Besides this, the participation of the masses in cultural work enjoys the aid, support and organization of many specialized institutions and of the whole society in general. And finally, our culture is no longer created by masses who had never been inside a school but by masses who have an ever higher educational and cultural’ level. This brings about that, with the transition to socialism, the decisive creative role of the masses in the field of culture increases and manifests itself in broad proportions. This means that in socialism the people’s culture is raised to new, high levels never seen before.

Third, another characteristic of the cultural revolution, another of its brilliant results, is the elimination of the cultural monopoly of the feudal-bourgeoisie, the changing of culture from the monopoly of a select minority, a limited elite, into the property of the broad masses. It is a fact that in antagonistic society the working masses have developed themselves intellectually mainly through their work and productive activity, while they have received just as much schooling, theory and science as the exploiting ruling classes have needed to exploit them more thoroughly. The socialist revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat put an end to this situation once and for all. Education, theory and science have been returned to the working masses, to those who, with their efforts and talents, keep socialist society alive and carry it forward in all directions.

The years of our People’s State Power have been years of a real offensive by an entire people, young and old, men and women to master technology, to conquer the bastions of knowledge, of arts and science, to turn our whole life into culture. The stages of the ceaseless march towards culture, expressions of its successes are the total elimination of illiteracy, the compulsory eight-year schooling, the abolition of religious teaching, the creation of higher education, the flowering of art in all its variety, song and dance, painting and sculpture, comedy and drama. The educational and cultural reality of our society is expressed by the following significant figures: whereas in 1938, the total number of pupils and students attending school was 56,000, today that number has risen to 700,000 which means that one-third of the population attend school.

Fourth, the cultural revolution does not aim at the educational and intellectual development or at the rejuvenation and progress of the life of only a minority of the population, of only one social stratum, to the detriment of the broad masses, or of only the cities to the detriment of the countryside. Its task is to ensure that education becomes the property of all, that the cultured life is taken up by everybody and enters every household, not only in the cities but also in the countryside, without creating special positions and privileges for any individual or stratum, a task which it is accomplishing better and better every day.

But the most fundamental characteristic of our cultural revolution, that which sets the tone for our education and culture and which marks a real revolution in them is their socialist content, their frankly Marxist- Leninist socialist tendentiousness.

Our socialist culture, like every other culture closely linked with classes and in the service of their struggle, cannot stand aloof from ideology and not be inspired by ideology. There is not, and never can be, any culture standing aloof from or above ideology. Culture for culture’s sake, pure culture, is simply a fraud which the bourgeoisie and the revisionists perpetrate in order to create that culture which best serves their selfish class interests. Therefore, the whole problem is not that culture should be divorced from ideology, for this is impossible, but that it must be based on the revolutionary ideology of the proletariat in opposition to the reactionary ideology of the bourgeoisie.

The Party of Labour of Albania strives to have no culture which is divorced from the mission of developing and perfecting the revolutionary ideological outlook of the working people and, on the other hand, to have no revolutionary ideological formation which is not based on the broadest and most accurate knowledge. This makes the cultural revolution part and parcel of the ideological revolution, makes them two sides of a single process, the process of the revolutionary education and re-education of the working people, the process of the formation of the new man of socialist society.

Naturally, the creation of the new socialist culture, the revolutionary ideological formation, immediately raised the problem of what to do about classical culture, the world culture heritage and, first and foremost, the culture of our own people, with their customs and traditions.

In the cultural revolution, the Party of Labour of Albania has faithfully followed the teachings of Lenin, who stressed that one can emerge from darkness only by utilizing the whole treasury of world culture, all the valuable achievements which mankind has created under the yoke of capitalist society, of the society of landlords and of bureaucrats. From its very first steps, our culture has striven consistently to take from world culture whatever is revolutionary and scientifically sound, whatever responds best to the requirements of the stage of development of our country. Consistently adhering to this orientation, our culture has maintained and continues to maintain a critical, stand towards world culture, taking from it only its scientific, materialist, democratic and popular ideas, and discarding its clerical, mystical idealist ideas, and any others which implant lack of confidence in life and man, which look down upon work and the working masses, which justify oppression, exploitation and obscurantism.

No matter how valuable the world cultural heritage may be, it is insufficient for the education and formation of the man of our society. In this, the first place is, and should be, occupied by the cultural heritage and traditions of our own people. In culture, too, the communists combine, the most consistent internationalism (they prize the progressive culture created by every people) with the purest of patriotism (they are the most ardent champions of the culture and traditions of their own people).

In place of the nihilist policy of denigration towards the culture and tradition of our people pursued by the reactionary ruling classes of the old, overthrown feudal-bourgeois order, the working class and its Marxist-Leninist Party have worked out a new policy, the policy of defending, preserving, and further enriching the popular culture and the first traditions of our people. At the foundation of this policy and the rich experience of our people in this field, are the Marxist-Leninist ideas of comrade Enver Hoxha, that our people have created a culture and art of a clear national character which constitutes a priceless heritage which must be kept pure and developed further; that the new socialist culture is linked with a thousand threads with the culture of the people; that the revolutionary content of the new socialist culture has not dropped like manna from heaven, nor has it been brought in a suitcase from abroad, but it has been inherited from our forefathers, its foundations are deep in the people; that the study of the cultural traditions of our people is not done simply for the purpose of knowing the past of our people but also for the purpose of learning from the experience of our forefathers in conformity with the new conditions and requirements of our socialist society; and finally, that a critical class attitude should be maintained towards the culture and traditions of our people from the past, on the basis of the idea that every creative work of every epoch has been tendentious, is inspired by the ideas of the time, bears the brand of the class struggle and of the ideology of its own time, therefore, it cannot be taken as a whole and inserted into the new life and culture just as it is.

Socialist culture is not something in itself, created apart from the people and handed to them from outside, but a culture indissolubly linked with them, which responds to their requirements, their spirit, and their traditions. There is no socialist culture in general, no culture created by someone which can be served up ready to any nation which is building socialism, but a socialist culture of a given nation which gives it its richness and this does not consist simply of its form, but enters deep into the content of this culture. Socialist culture, taken in its broadest sense, has emerged and developed in close collaboration with the culture of the people. In its essence it is a socialist and a national culture.

Guided by the teachings of comrade Enver Hoxha, our socialist culture is proving in practice that proletarian partisanship, which requires that every cultural manifestation must be viewed from the angle of the interests of the working class and analyzed from the standpoint of Marxist-Leninist ideology, and the national tradition, which requires that everything good and valuable, everything close to the aspirations of the workers, created by the people in the past, must be preserved, far from opposing each other, are, on the contrary complementary arid dialectically linked with each other. Our socialist culture is enriched by the great artistic, ideo-philosophic values which our people have brought to culture, while through the socialist culture, the rational tradition is cleansed of negative elements which may have penetrated it under the influence of negative economic and social factors of the past, and is further enriched with the new experience which has emerged under socialism.

Our concern to discover, uphold and evaluate the best traditions of one’s own people’s culture also stems from a political demand, from the demand to ensure the free development of the people, which is the first premise of any genuine socialist construction. The attempts, which the two super-powers are making today in one way or another, to impose their own language, as allegedly the best language, their own culture, as allegedly the richest culture, their pretensions that culture today is moving towards its ‘internationalization’, towards the disappearance of specific cultures, implying the Americanization or Russification of the cultures of the other peoples, are in essence, expressions of the national egotism and great state chauvinism of the two super-powers, their favorite means for the conquest of the peoples and establishing their hegemony. Therefore, under these circumstances, faced with the imperialist designs of the two superpowers, the revolutionary Leninist principle must be stressed and applied that for the life and existence of each nation, political vigilance and ensuring its defence from any armed aggression and the preservation of its cultural identity and mother tongue are equally important. If a people loses its cultural physiognomy, if it does not hold on to its traditions, if it allows its mother tongue to be forgotten, it has ceased to be a nation in itself.

If we oppose the ideological and cultural aggression of the bourgeois-revisionist world, we do this in the name of freedom and independence, in the name of the correct and rapid development of our socialist culture, but by no means in the name of national exclusiveness. National narrowness and xenophobia are alien to our revolutionary ideology and our new culture. Our socialist culture has utilized and continues to utilize the progressive culture of all peoples, but not by sacrificing our mother tongue, the best traditions, and the cultural heritage of our own people, but while emphasizing and prizing them. With this heritage our people will take their place in world culture. Any other assimilation of the culture of one people by another, made to the detriment of the national language and finest national traditions, under whatever name it is called, is, in reality, a chauvinist design to impose the domination and hegemony of one nation over other nations, whether they live within a multi-national state or are separated by national boundaries.

What does the traditional culture of the people, with which the new socialist culture is linked, represent? What has our nation contributed in the field of culture?

Our people came to power and to real freedom with a rich material, social and spiritual cultural heritage. In it are expressed the people’s capacity to live on, indomitable in any circumstances, no matter how difficult, their talent and inextinguishable desire for a free and independent life without oppression and exploitation. But the extremely difficult historical circumstances under which they had to fight for their very existence, the anti-national and anti-popular ideological pressure and influence of the invaders and the reactionary classes, on the background of the great backwardness and poverty, are also expressed in it. These circumstances make the culture we have inherited from the past a mixture of progressive and reactionary elements, with light and darkness. However, the progressive values exceed the non-progressive ones in force and breadth, the elements of light greatly predominate over those of darkness. It is the progressive values which give the culture of our people its characteristic tone. This distinctive characteristic of the culture of our people has its own explanation which is, as comrade Enver Hoxha stresses, ‘through the centuries, the people of our small country have always been guided by the progressive ideas of liberty and the defence of liberty, by the ideas of just wars against oppressors, against the rapacious imperialist ideologies of foreigners’.

Our people have been obliged to lead an intensive life in their struggle for existence and self-defense, have had to face up all sorts of events. Naturally they have had to act and think, to create a definite concept about many phenomena of nature and life, about griefs and joys. For well-known reasons they have not done this in writing, have not fixed it in books or treatises, but have formulated it by word of mouth, transmitting and enriching it from one district to another, from one generation to another for centuries on end. This has made up our wealth of folklore, which is our unwritten encyclopedia, a living testimony of the talent and wisdom of our people. The historian and philosopher, the anonymous writer and artist, speak collectively through hundreds of legends and songs of heroes, through thousands of aphorisms and proverbs, through thousands upon thousands of songs of valour and love, of work and exile, of weddings and deaths. This remains an immortal monument of the culture of our people, a source of learning and inspiration for the artist and the writer, for the philosopher and thinker of our own days, for the new socialist culture as a whole.

At the present time, when anti-communist ideology has swamped the book market and audiences in the bourgeois-revisionist world, when hideous fashions and decadent trends in art and literature are assailing the tastes of the youth and the masses from all sides, the reality of the new culture of our people assumes a special value and significance. By its existence and flowering it is showing that the present decadent and degenerate culture is not an inevitable evil from which no one can escape. Meanwhile, in its practice, our culture shows how the bourgeois revisionist ideological aggression can be coped with, how a culture in the service of the liberation of the working people from oppression and exploitation, a culture which will preserve the real values of the people and raise them to a higher level and oppose everything which degrades man morally, aesthetically and philosophically, can be created.

The national features, the national background of socialist culture, the appreciation of the cultural heritage created by our people, are that force which in culture facilitates and accelerates the cultural revolution, while in politics it helps the people get a better appreciation of their own value and strength, to cope better with any aggression from whatever direction it may come. Indeed, this is the most important function and the most profound meaning of every genuine culture – to help the people to recognise their own worth, to multiply their efforts in their struggle for a better and more just life, in their struggle for socialism and communism.

This article is reproduced from New Albania, No 3, 1977.

All emphasis is from the original.

Zija Xholi, Albanian philosopher. Member Academy of Science, Albanian Trade Union (member General Council 1967-1972, member Presidium 1972-1976, Chairman Culture Department 1977-1990), Albanian Philosophical Association (Chairman 1991).

More on Albania ……

Documents of the Party of Labour of Albania

PPSH logoMore on Albania …..

Documents of the Party of Labour of Albania

These pages include documents and decisions of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania and other state organisations of the Albanian state. Also there are articles that were originally published in ‘Zeri i Popullit’, the official newspaper of the CC of the PLA.

I apologise if some of the reproductions are a little messy. The paper used in the 1960/70s does not age well and I hope that the ‘staining’ doesn’t cause any problems. As far as I’m concerned the text (which, after all, is the most important) is still clear and legible.

The ideas of Marxism-Leninism will triumph on the Revisionism, no publisher, Tirana. 1962, 227 pages.

Fiftieth Anniversary of Albanian Independence, no publisher, Tirana, 1962, 71 pages. Contains three speeches by Enver Hoxha, Mehmet Shehu and Haxhi Lleshi on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of Albanian Independence in November 1962.

Togliati’s ‘Testament’, the crisis of Modern Revisionism and the fight of Marxist-Leninists, reproduced from Zeri i Popullit daily, November 13, 1964, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1964, 43 pages.

Constitution of the People’s Republic of Albania, the Albanian Committee for Cultural Relations and Friendship with Foreign Countries, Tirana, 1964, 48 pages. The Constitution that was adopted in January 1946 and which was in place until it was changed in 1976 at the 7th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania.

The Belgrade Revisionist Clique – Renegades from Marxism-Leninism and Agents of Imperialism, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1964, 325 pages. A series of articles first published in Zëri i Popullit, the official newspaper of the CC of the PLA, relating to the counter-revolutionary activities of the Yugoslav Revisionists. The articles cover the period from January 1962 to September 1963.

The Facts about Soviet-Albanian Relations, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1964, 165 pages. Documents and letters from the period 1961-63 when the Khrushchevite revisionists of the Soviet Union abandoned Albania and in the process the revolutionary road of Marxism-Leninism.

Marxist-Leninist Ideology will certainly overcome Revisionism – Volume II, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1964, 462 pages. A series of articles, first published in Zëri i Popullit, the official newspaper of the CC of the PLA, relating to the Modern Revisionism in the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and other European ‘Communist’ Parties. The articles cover the period from May 1962 to June 1963.

Twenty Years of Socialism in Albania, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1964, 127 pages.

Communist and Workers’ Parties and Marxist-Leninist Groups greet the Fifth Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania, held in Tirana from November 1 to November 8, 1966, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1966, 207 pages.

The Soviet Revisionist clique works at a quick pace towards the re-establishment of capitalism, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1967, 35 pages.

Let the storm of Revolution burst out powerfully, reproduced from Zeri i Popullit daily, May 16th 1968, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1968, 39 pages.

The Budapest Carnivals, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1968, 33 pages.

The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic caught in the grip of Soviet Revisionist invaders, reproduced from Zeri i Popullit daily, November 19, 1968, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1968, 22 pages.

The working class in Revisionist countries must take the field and re-establish the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, reproduced from the ‘Zeri i Popullit’ daily, March 24, 1968, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1968, 40 pages.

The Soviet Revisionists and Czechoslovakia, reproduced from the ‘Zeri i Popullit’ daily, July 24, 1968, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1968, 31 pages.

Soviet-US Alliance at work against the Czechoslovak people, reproduced from Zeri i Popullit daily, May 23rd 1969, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1969, 16 pages.

The demagogy of the Soviet Revisionists cannot conceal their traitorous countenance, reproduced from the ‘Zeri i Popullit’ daily, January 10, 1969, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1969, 50 pages.

Open fire on Revisionist betrayal, articles from ‘Zeri i Popullit’ daily, organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1969, 68 pages.

Resolution of the CC of the PLA and the Council of Ministers of the PRA on Proclaiming the 1969 Year as a jubilar year of the 25th Anniversary of the Liberation of the Fatherland and of the Triumph of the People’s Revolution, no publisher, Tirana, 1969, 4 pages.

Military Pressure – Basis of the Political Dictate and Blackmail of the Soviet Revisionist Leaders, reproduced from the April 11th 1969 issue of ‘Zeri i Popullit’ daily, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1969, 22 pages.

The Congress of capitalist restoration and Social-imperialism, reproduced from the ‘Zeri i Popullit’ daily, April 17, 1971, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1971, 33 pages.

Some questions of Socialist Construction in Albania and of the struggle against Revisionism, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1971, 229 pages. Presentations given at the National Conference of Social Studies in Tirana in November 1969, on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic. Includes contributions by Ramiz Alia and Nexhmije Hoxha.

An historic victory of Marxism-Leninism over Revisionism, reproduced from the ‘Rruga e Partise’, January 5, 1971, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1971, 59 pages. On the tenth anniversary of the Meeting of the 81 Communist and Workers Parties in Moscow in 1961.

The 6th Congress of the Albanian Labour Youth Union – held in Durres on October 23, 1972, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1972, 100 pages.

Culture People’s Heritage, Naim Frasheri Publishing House, Tirana, 1973, 88 pages. A review of Albania’s Cultural Heritage and how, after the liberation of the country from Fascism in 1944, the people were able to appreciate this historical treasury for the first time.

Albania’s Foreign Policy, speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations given by Foreign Minister Nesti Nase on October 2nd 1972, Albania Report, New York 1973, 15 pages.

A new victory of the policy of the Party of Labour of Albania in the uplift of the general well being of the people, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1976, 25 pages. Decision of the CC of the PLA and the Council of Ministers of the People’s Republic of Albania on the reduction of higher wages, on some improvements in the wage system of working people and on the furthering narrowing of differences between town and country

A Social Democratic Congress of the French Revisionists, editorial of Zeri i Popullit, organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, February 21, 1976, 16 pages.

The Congress of the Soviet Revisionists – a Congress of Social-Imperialist Demagogy and Expansion, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1976, 24 pages. Editorial of Zeri i Popullit, organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, March 12, 1976.

Draft Constitution of the People’s Republic of Albania, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1976, 42 pages. The Albanian people have found constant inspiration in the great doctrine of Marxism-Leninism, under the banner of which, united round the Party of Labour and under its leadership, they are carrying forward the construction of socialist society to pass over, later, gradually to communist society.

A meeting that sealed Revisionist betrayal, editorial of ‘Zeri i Popullit’, organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, July 7, 1976, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1976, 16 pages.

Two Opposing Lines In The World Trade Union Movement, Filip Kota, Gamma Publishing, New York, 1976, 178 pages. The difference between the role of the Trade Unions in capitalist countries and the part they play in the construction of Socialism in Albania. Reprint of original published in Tirana in 1974.

The Constitution of the Party of Labour of Albania, adopted at the 3rd Congress of the PLA (including amendments made at the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Congresses of the PLA), 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 64 pages.

A new step in the struggle against opportunism, reproduced from the newspaper ‘Zeri i Popullit’, organ of the CC of the PLA, November 22, 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 19 pages.

The Albanian people have been and are with the just cause of the peoples, speech of Comrade Nesti Nase, head of the Delegation of the PSR of Albania at the 32nd Session of the General Assembly of the UNO, October 6, 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 22 pages.

‘Eurocommunism’ or undisguised Revisionism, article from ‘Zeri i Popullit’, organ of the CC of the PLA, dated December 4, 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 24 pages.

The Party of Labour of Albania on the Building and the Life of the Party, Part 1, Part 2. (This booklet is reproduced here in two parts due to file size.) 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 312 pages. A selection of Resolutions, Documents and Articles produced between the first days of the Party in November 1941 until February 1972. taken from the Party archives and from the Collected Works of Enver Hoxha.

The Ideas of the October Revolution are defended and carried forward in the struggle against modern revisionism, speech delivered at the Commemorative Meeting on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Great Socialist October Revolution (November 7, 1977), by Hysni Kapo, Member of the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 46 pages.

Some Fundamental Questions of the Revolutionary policy of the Party of Labour of Albania about the Class Struggle, by Nexhmije Hoxha, Director of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania in 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 67 pages.

The Theory and Practice of Revolution, editorial of the ‘Zeri i Popullit’, organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, July 7, 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 35 pages.

In the light of the ideas of the 7th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania, Norman Bethune Institute, Toronto, 1977, 176 pages. Articles from ‘Zeri i Popullit’, organ of the Central Committee of the PLA, following the 7th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania.

Photo Album of Albanian Life, Norman Bethune Institute, Toronto, 1977, 174 pages. A collection of photos showing the history of the Liberation War and the Construction of Socialism in Albania, up to 1977.

Chinese Warmongering and Hua Kuo-Feng’s Visit to the Balkans, editorial of the newspaper ‘Zeri i Popullit’, organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, September 3, 1978, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1978, 22 pages.

The Social Class Structure of the Working Class in Albania, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1978, 218 pages. The working class is the principal force in the production of material blessing. It is the most progressive and the most revolutionary class of the society, whose historic mission is to overthrow capitalism from its foundations and to destroy it, to put an end to any exploitation of man by man, and to build socialist and communist society.

Letter of CC of the Party of Labour of Albania and the Government of Albania to CC of the Communist Party and the Government of China, July 29th 1978, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1978, 56 pages.

Sino-American Alliance – a great threat to the peoples’ freedom, independence and security, editorials of the newspaper ‘Zeri i Popullit’, Organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1979, 27 pages.

Who Incites Hostility Amongst the Peoples of Yugoslavia, article from of the newspaper ‘Zeri i Popullit’, Organ of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, April 23, 1981, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1979, 29 pages.

Soviet Revisionism and the Struggle of the PLA to Unmask it, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1981, 208 pages. This book comprises the reports and a number of papers read at the Scientific Session ‘Soviet Revisionism and the Struggle of the PLA to Unmask it’, organised by the Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the CC of the PLA on 17-18 November, 1980. The reports and papers are published in an abridged form.

The Museum House of the Party, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1981, 60 pages. The house in Tirana where the Albanian Communist Party (later the Party of Labour of Albania) was formed on 8th November, 1941. After liberation converted into a museum, currently with no public access.

Socialist Albania will always remain loyal to the great cause of Socialism and the Revolution, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1982, 26 pages. Speech by Adil Çarçani at the 8th Session of the 9th Legislature of the People’s Assembly on the program and composition of the Council of Ministers, January 15, 1982.

The youth – a great force of the revolution, Htypshkronja e Re, Tirana, 1982, 46 pages. A book celebrating the role of Albanian youth in the War of Liberation and the Construction of Socialism.

The Counter-revolution within the Counter-revolution – about the events of the years 1980-1983 in Poland, Spiro Dede, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1983, 303 pages. The Revisionists started the rot in Poland and opened the way for the out and out counter-revolutionary movement under the guise of trade unionism – Solidarity. Event since show the correctness of the Albanian analysis more than thirty years ago.

Report on the 8th Five-Year Plan (1986-1990), submitted to the 9th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania by Adil Çarçani, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1986, 89 pages.

Klasiket e Marksizem-Leninizmit – The Classics of Marxism-Leninism, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1986, 156 pages. The text of this book is in Albanian but has been posted for its photos of the great leaders and founders of Marxism-Leninism – Karl Marx, Frederick Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin.

Although not technically statements by the PLA the following two documents were published in Tirana and therefore reflect the views of the Party at that time.

Joint Declaration of the Delegations of the Marxist-Leninist Parties of Latin America, taken from the newspaper ‘No Transar’, Organ of the Communist Party (ML) of Argentina, No 192, January 12, 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 15 pages.

Joint Declaration of Marxist-Leninist Communist Parties of Europe – Communist Party of Germany (ML), Communist Party of Spain (ML), Communist Party of Greece (ML), Communist Party of Italy (ML) and the Portuguese Communist party (Reconstructed), reprinted from the newspaper ‘Zeri i Popullit’, central organ of the CC of the PLA, November 4, 1977, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1977, 32 pages.

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