Albanian History 1 – 10

Butrint Theatre - Southern Albania

Butrint Theatre – Southern Albania

More on Albania …..

Albanian History 1 – 10

On these pages will be found those documents that don’t seem to have a natural home on any of the other pages under the Albania heading. This will include documents related to Albanian History as well as those relating to issues of women, the trade unions, youth and culture, amongst others.

Albanian History 11 – 20, 21 – 30

History of Albania - A Brief Survey - 1964

History of Albania – A Brief Survey – 1964

 

 

This provides a comprehensive introduction to the history of Albania from prehistoric times up to the early days of Socialist construction in the mid-1960s. This copy has been worked on from a much larger file that had been scanned and can be found at http://www.scribd.com/doc/182788795/The-History-of-Albania-A-Brief-Survey

 

 

 

The following document is a collection of reports presented to a conference on the Anti-fascist National Liberation War of the Albanian People. This was organised by The Academy of Sciences, The Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies and Tirana University that took place in Tirana in November, 1984. It is presented in two parts due to the large size of the file.

The National Conference of the Anti-fascist National Liberation War - Part 1

The National Conference of the Anti-fascist National Liberation War – Part 1

The National Conference of the Anti-fascist National Liberation War - Part 2

The National Conference of the Anti-fascist National Liberation War – Part 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An Outline of the Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania

An Outline of the Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania

 

 

 

A description of Albania, its geography, history and culture, published in 1978.

 

 

 

 

1973 Problems of the struggle for the Complete Emancipation of Women

1973 Problems of the struggle for the Complete Emancipation of Women

 

 

 

A selection of articles produced by the State University, Tirana, on the issue related to the complete emancipation of women

 

 

 

 

1978 7th Congress of the Labour Youth Union of Albania

1978 7th Congress of the Labour Youth Union of Albania

 

 

 

The 7th Congress of the Labour Youth Union of Albania, Elbasan, September 26-29, 1977

 

 

 

 

1978 The Albanian Woman - a great force of The Revolution

1978 The Albanian Woman – a great force of The Revolution

 

 

 

One of the great achievements of the Socialist Revolution in Albania is the enhancement of the role of the woman as an active force equal with man in the construction of the new society

 

 

 

1981 Articles from Puna

1981 Articles from Puna

 

 

 

Published by the Central Council of Albanian Trade Unions

 

 

 

1981 From the Annals of British Diplomacy

1981 From the Annals of British Diplomacy

 

 

 

The Anti-Albanian plans of Great Britain during the Second World War according to Foreign Office Documents of 1939-44

 

 

 

1983 The 9th Congress of the Women's Union of Albania

1983 The 9th Congress of the Women’s Union of Albania

 

 

 

From June 1- 3, 1983, following the historical decisions of the 8th Congress of the PLA, the 9th Congress of the Women’s Union of Albania held its proceedings in the city of Durres.

 

 

 

1983 National Conference on Problems of the Development of the Economy

1983 National Conference on Problems of the Development of the Economy

 

 

 

On Problems of the Development of the Economy in the 7th Five-year Plan, 11-12th April, 1983

 

 

 

 

 

More on Albania ……

Women’s Liberation, Marriage and Family

Harbour of the Fatherland

Harbour of the Fatherland

More on China …..

Women’s Liberation, Marriage and Family

Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, promulgated on May 1, 1950. (Peking: FLP, 1950), 1st edition, 50 pages. First edition. (Peking: FLP, 3rd ed. 1973), 16 pages, much sharper image, 1950 marriage law itself unchanged. Third edition.

Women In China Today pamphlet series, published by the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation, October-November 1952. (Only these numbers yet available.)

Liu Hu-lan — Story of a Girl Revolutionary, by Liang Hsing. A short biography of a revolutionary hero, (Peking: FLP, 1953), 97 pages.

Minority Women of China, in Chinese but the pamphlet mostly consists of color paintings of minority women of different regions of China in their traditional dress. (Peking: 1958), 34 pages.

A Divorce Trial in China, by Felix Greene, (New England Free Press, 1970), 16 pages. Originally published as a chapter in Greene’s book Awakened China: The Country Americans Don’t Know (1961)

The Struggle Between Two Lines at the Moscow World Congress of Women, six statements, articles and reports. (Peking: FLP, 1963), 70 pages. [Our apologies for the darkened paper in the copy scanned, though it is still quite legible.]

New Women in New China, a collection of 10 articles showing the diverse roles that women were playing in revolutionary China. Includes many photographs. (Peking: FLP, 1972), 96 pages.

Chinese Women in the Fight for Socialism, a collection of 13 articles about the advances made by women in the New China. Includes many photographs. [Note: While this book was issued in 1977 after the capitalist-roaders had come to power after Mao’s death, it still mostly reflects the achievements made under socialism.] (Peking: FLP, 1977), 158 pages (116 pages of text).

Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective January 1, 1981. (Beijing: FLP, 1st ed. 1982), 40 pages.

How Can Socialism Ensure the Full Liberation of Women?, by Joan Hinton, revised Jan. 1, 1997, 8 pages.

More on China …..

A Thousand Murdered Girls

Greek Partisan Women

Greek Partisan Women

If there’s any lesson to be learnt from the new play A Thousand Murdered Girls, about the way that Greek women partisans were treated after the Second World War, it’s don’t trust the British.

Partisan movements, very often led by strong Communist parties, were fundamental in liberating many of the countries in the Balkan region. And it was in those Communist led resistance armies that you would have found a considerable number of women, not just in support roles to the army, but actually taking up arms and fighting side by side with the men for the liberation of their countries from Fascism. In fact, it was only in those countries where the Communists were organised that women played such a militant role: Albania, Greece, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.

The British supplied arms (after all for much of the war the British weren’t actually doing much fighting in Europe) and constantly tried to influence those Partisan movements by sending in Special Operations Executive (SOE) officers, the forerunner of MI6. At the same time that the Soviet Red Army was inflicting crushing blows on the German Nazi forces on the Eastern Front both German and Italian forces were being pushed out of those countries in southern Europe that they had taken with such ease a few years before.

Royalist and very often pro-fascist armies of the old state had put up little resistance and it was only when the Communist Partisans became properly organised that the tide began to turn against Fascism. By the autumn of 1944, when the defeat of the Nazis was only a matter of time, the British, and especially Churchill, started to denigrate and sideline these fighters, who had sacrificed so much, in favour of political forces that would be more willing to follow the instructions of the both the UK and the USA. Churchill might have been anti-Nazi but he was never anti-Fascist!

So as soon as the war was ‘won’ in Greece the Greek people had to face the attempts of the local Monarchists and Fascists to reap the rewards of all their suffering and sacrifice. Mistakes made by the Greek Communist Party (the KKE) led to a drawn out Civil War which they eventually lost.

If one major mistake was to trust the British the other was to give up their arms. No revolutionary, in any country, in any circumstance, should ever, ever give up their arms just on the promises made by government and international forces that have spent their existence perfecting the art of lying to the people. Unfortunately the Greek Partisans didn’t seem to be aware of events in Germany in the 1920s or any understanding of the extent to which imperialism would go in their attempts to destroy the young Soviet Union. If the Greeks made a fatal mistake (for some) in the 1940s it’s even more depressing to look at what has happened in the last few years in Nepal.

Why the KKE made such a mistake I can’t say although the evidence of the nefarious actions of the British were evident in the region – witness the Corfu Channel Incident engineered by the British (which even meant the deaths of their own seamen) in an attempt to intimidate Albania. The Communist Party in Albania was strong enough, and probably had a better ideological understanding of what was happening in the immediate post-war world, to stand up to such bullying.

The play makes a point, quite early, about what Churchill was up to and that’s all well and good. What it does not mention is that it was not a party political issue in the UK. If Churchill started the process of interference in the internal affairs of the Balkan countries it was the Labour Government of Attlee (with Bevin as the anti-Communist Foreign Secretary) who continued with the policy, even moving British involvement up a notch.

One of the problems in Britain, and this comes up in many so-called progressive artistic performances as well, is that there is a seeming reluctance of many of those on the ‘left’ of any criticism of the Labour Party and its foreign policy. Labour was thrown out (and Churchill returned) before the action in the play is completed but there is a seamless development of foreign policy. This was to be repeated the next time the Labour Party were to find themselves in power in Britain, and for that millions of Indonesian working people and peasants were to suffer.

Through representing this shameful period in Greek history (which led directly to the fascistisation of the Greek police and military and ultimately to the Generals Coup in 1967) through the words that the women wrote whilst in concentration camps on the small and, at that time, isolated island of Trikeri it misses the most important point.

Yes it displays their strength, unity and steadfastness in face of extreme suffering, hardship and provocation. But in the end it doesn’t try to present us with any useful thoughts for the future.

The play A Thousand Murdered Girls was written by Darren Guy, directed by Mikyla Jane Durkan and performed at the Unity Theatre, Liverpool, from the 4th-6th July, 2013.