El Tigre/Itzamkanac – Campeche – Mexico

El Tigre - Itzamkanac

El Tigre – Itzamkanac

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El Tigre – Itzamkanac


This is a fairly large province encompassing the River Candelaria and part of the Terminos Lagoon and Sabancuy Estuary. To reach the capital El Tigre (Itzamkanac) from Ciudad del Carmen or Champoton, go to Escarcega, take the turn-off to Candelaria but before you reach it follow the sign to El Tigre, on the banks of the Candelaria. This river is formed by two large tributaries, the Caribe and the San Pedro: the former rises in the Calakmul lowlands and the latter near Flores in Guatemala. It is associated with the two great Maya capitals – Tikal and Calakmul. As it flows past El Tigre, the river is 150 m wide and is navigable throughout its course, although a few kilometres beyond the village of Candelaria numerous waterfalls complicate navigation but enhance the beauty of the landscape.

History of the explorations

Itzamkanac was first visited by Hernan Cortes in 1525 and subsequently received visits from Alonso Davila, the first encomenderos (Spanish settlers to whom the Spanish crown granted control over a certain number of indigenous people) and various monks. In 1557 the population was obliged to abandon the place and move to Tixchel. In relation to more recent explorations, the earliest of these was conducted by W. Andrews IV (1943), who sailed up the River Candelaria and recorded El Tigre and other sites. We then have the extraordinary work carried out by Scholes y Roys (1948), who described the region and identified Itzamakanac in the ruins at El Tigre and Tixchel on the coast. Pina Chan and Pavon Abreu visited El Tigre in 1959, publishing photographs and a brief description in an article in which they conclude that the site is the Itzamkanac of the historical sources. It was thanks to the interest shown by Pina Chan that a project affecting various structures was conducted in 1984. Prior to that, Lorenzo Ochoa had toured the Candelaria basin with Ernesto Vargas P. and Sofia Pince, and they subsequently made separate tours to shed a little more light on the whole province. Since 1996 Ernesto Vargas P. has been conducting tours of the whole Acalan-Tixchel province based on several of the approaches laid down by Pina Chan, and he has also worked on various structures at the site in collaboration with the State Government, Petroleos Mexicanos and the INAH and UNAM. The site is open to the public, who can view the masks, a ball court and several of the structures.

Pre-Hispanic history

According to historical sources, the Acalan province stretched from Tixchel by the sea, along part of the Terminos Lagoon and the entire Candelaria river basin, to Tenosique. Various researchers have identified Itzamkanac, its capital or administrative centre, with the archaeological site of El Tigre-Campeche. Hernan Cortes passed through the place en route to Las Hibueras in 1525; later on, Alonso Davila re-established the town of Salamanca de Itzamkanac, although it was rapidly abandoned. Neither of them reached the place by the known routes, but we do know that various fluvial and terrestrial routes passed through the Acalan province. The principal one was the River Candelaria, which permitted trade with distant places such as Tixchel, Xicalango, Potonchan and even Nito and Naco in Honduras. A tour of the basins of the rivers Candelaria, Caribe and San Pedro revealed over 150 archaeological sites, proof that the area enjoyed great importance during the pre-Hispanic period. The largest sites are El Tigre, Cerro de los Muertos and Santa Clara on the banks of the River Caribe. Situated on the hills overlooking the River Candelaria, El Tigre was clearly a strategic enclave. The settlement is dominated by a main precinct with structures that stand over 20 m tall, the residential area and a road. Its occupation dates from the Late Preclassic, as demonstrated by several of the masks that have been analysed at Structures 1 and 2. However, the site experienced its heyday during the Terminal Classic and survived until the Late Postclassic, as shown by the finds uncovered at the top of these same buildings.

Site description

The Ceremonial Precinct is composed of 4 large structures, 6 smaller structures, 2 plazas, 13 altars, 3 stelae and the access roads to the site. The most work has been conducted on Structures 1, 2 and 4. Structure 1 is bounded to the south by the great plaza and measures approximately 150 m along the north-south axis and 135 m along the east-west axis. It is approximately 8 metres high and is surmounted by four platforms, two of which face the front; a 23m-high pyramid rises at the rear of the structure; access to the top of it is via stairways which have been consolidated and reveal the three principal constructions phases of the building: Late Preclassic, Terminal Classic and Postclassic.

Masks 1 and 2 are located on Platform 1c Sub and belong to a substructure which, judging from the ceramics found and other characteristics, corresponds to the Late Preclassic. Various anthropomorphic and zoomorphic masks have been identified; the former are human faces with a clearly discernible chins, mouths, noses, eyes, plumes and ear ornaments. All of them are painted in red and cream and show traces of black paint. Mask 1 is well preserved and must represent an important figure as it is painted red, the colour identified with power. The head and the sides of the face were covered by a type of helmet – partly destroyed – with three bands and what appears to be an ornament at the centre. Ear ornaments flank the face. These are very simply decorated, showing a large circle with bows or knots and decorative hooks. The entire mask rests on a talud or sloping wall and is divided by a stairway with three steps but no balustrades; intertwining knots or bows can be discerned both above and below the ear ornaments. Below these, what appear to be three leaves reach down to the level that supports the platform and create the impression of being extensions of the ear ornaments. Another design can be discerned above the knot. The symbols presented are associated with royalty, which in subsequent times would appear in Maya iconography and sources.

Mask 3 is characteristic of the Late Preclassic: a figure at the centre, probably an iguana-crocodile, with large ear ornaments sprouting serpents on both sides, two figures at the top looking up to the heavens and below a series of plant-like elements. It measures 4 m in height and 7 m in width, and is abutted to the wall of the building in the form of a talud. There are two such masks flanking a broad stairway, but only one of them has been consolidated. This can be divided into three broad sections: a central section featuring the main figure with ear ornaments and serpents on both sides; and above and below these, knots or bows joining the top to upwardly-looking human faces. The face of the mask is that of a mythical animal, possibly a lizard-iguana-feline creature – the elements above the eyes are very characteristic of lizards, as are the double lidded eyes. The nose is flat – the Maya were either unable or unwilling to represent a realistic nose – and it has nostrils at the sides. The mask itself is divided into three parts: the ear ornaments on both sides, the serpents and the human faces. The two sides can also be divided into three parts: the underworld, the earth and the sky, connected by the knots. In addition to symbolising royalty, the ear ornaments might also signify the terrestrial plane, divided into four large sections distributed around a specific point at the centre of the world, the fifth direction. The bows above and below the ear ornaments might well signify the connection between the different worlds – the earth, underworld and sky. These masks conveyed important religious messages for the Maya inhabitants in Preclassic times.

Platform 1a is round and composed of a circular wall which must have subsided due to the weight of the flat roof, causing part of the walls to collapse outwards. The only entrance door faces east. According to the Papeles de Paxbolom Maldonado, one of the principal gods venerated at Itzamkanac was Kukulcan and this temple may well be dedicated to him. The residential palace stands at the south-east corner of Structure 1; the rooms have decorative moulding and the perfectly-preserved walls still stand just over a metre and a half high. The residential unit is composed of various rooms at the top of the building, all of them inter-connected by doors and fronted by a corridor accessed by a stairway. This residential unit is flanked by two independent rooms. The decorative mouldings in the building are in the Rio Bec style, as are the curved walls and the stonework. This building is very important for El Tigre, not only because of the Rio Bec influence but also because it corresponds to the Terminal Classic (AD 900-1100) and boasts Balancan and Altar ceramics, as well as a few examples of the Tinaja Red ceramics characteristic of the region of Calakmul and Rio Bec. There are signs that the building was deliberately destroyed. Part of the mouldings were reused and the rooms were filled with another material.

Structure 4 is the largest construction on the site, measuring nearly 200×200 m and adopting a quadrangular plan. This large platform stands some 10 m above the plaza, forming a type of raised plain on which sit seven mounds of varying sizes and shapes. The main one rises 28 m above the plaza, commencing at the base of the structure, and is possibly the highest mound on the site. Oriented east-west and aligned with the mounds of Structures 2 and 3, it stands 15 m above the base of the large platform, at the middle; it is preceded by a smaller 3-m-high mound. There are other elevations both to the south and north, the most important ones being those of the latter direction – some of these are 3 m high, while the elevations to the south are barely delimited. This is also true of the ones in the north-west, where even the remains of the base can be discerned. The work conducted on Structure 4A can be summarised as follows: the lower part has been delimited and several subsequent platforms covering earlier stages have been found. We believe that the building has had at least four construction phases: the oldest dating from the Late Preclassic, followed by the Early Classic, Terminal Classic and the Postclassic. The stairways also reveal various stages. Opposite Structure 1, in the middle of the Great Plaza, is Structure 5 or the ball court, where the sacbe culminates. This comprises two buildings and a court, the flat space between them. The two parallel structures have a vertical inner wall followed by a talud of varying gradient and stairways or ramps to access the upper part: this is an example of the socalled open variety of ball courts. We believe that some of the walls are from the Late Preclassic, although the construction we see today corresponds to the Terminal Classic and the extensions on the east side to the Late Postclassic.

Importance and relations

Despite the relatively scant exploration of this area and the fact that it is largely unknown to travellers, the River Candelaria nevertheless played an important role during the pre-Hispanic age as a channel of communication between the two great Maya capitals – Calakmul and Tikal. In the Preclassic period the region appears to have maintained vital links with Peten in Guatemala, as evidenced by the ceramics found and the characteristic masks adorning the architecture. During the Classic period it had greater links with the coast and other Chontal ports such as Xicalango and Potonchan. These links were maintained in the Postclassic, when trade was also pursued with the Yucatan Peninsula. Itzamkanac was a very important fluvial port, albeit situated inland, and its role differed from that of other Chontal ports.

From: ‘The Maya: an architectural and landscape guide’, produced jointly by the Junta de Andulacia and the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, 2010, pp 285-288.

El Tigre - Itzamkanac

El Tigre – Itzamkanac

1-4. Structures 1 to 4.

How to get there:

From Candelaria. El Tigre is a long way from the nearest major town of Candelaria. There are plenty of taxis that have their rank at the bottom of the main square, opposite the main church. If you are good at bargaining you might be able to get a decent rate to take you there, wait while you visit and take you back to town. You would really need at least an hour for a visit.


18d 07’ 15” N

90d 15’ 13” W



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Mixco Viejo – Guatemala

Mixco Viejo

Mixco Viejo

More on the Maya

Mixco Viejo


This is one of the most representative Postclassic archaeological sites in the Guatemalan Highlands. Its architecture and landscape combine to make it one of the finest exponents of a defensive site or fortress city from the last period of the pre-Hispanic period. It is situated on a plateau surrounded by deep ravines, 61 km north of the present-day Guatemala City.

The confluence of the rivers Motagua and Pixcaya flows in deep ravines all around the site. The predominate climate is hot and dry, and the vegetation is of the thicket type. The site, which covers an area of approximately 1 km and stands 880 m above sea level, contains over 100 structures distributed in several groups designated by letters. Each group consists of one or more temples, several platforms for supporting large houses or palaces, and a ball court, all situated around enclosed or open plazas.

Pre-Hispanic history

According to Fuentes and Guzman, the fortress at Mixco Viejo was a virtually impregnable military bastion due to its location and magnificent defensive position. However, following cruel battles waged on the plains around the site, a group of prisoners revealed a secret access to the Spaniards, enabling them to take the defenders of the fort unawares and defeat them in a campaign led by Pedro de Alvarado.

The ruins of Mixco Viejo were identified by Karl Sapper, who visited the site at the end of the 19th century. The next visitor was A. L. Smith, who included it in his book Archaeological Reconnaissance in Central America, and in a chapter in his Handbook of Middle American Indians. The first excavations were conduced by Henri Lehmann of the Franco-Guatemalan Mission in 1954. According to historical records, the site was the capital of the Pocomam kingdom, whose present-day descendants live in the town of Mixco. However, a detailed ethno-historic research project led by Robert Carmack proved that Mixco Viejo was the capital of the Chajoma Maya, a group belonging to the Caqchikel race, whose present-day home is the town of San Martin Jilotepeque. Carmack believed the correct name of the site to be Jilotepeque Viejo, and that the Pocomam capital was the ruin known as Chinautla Viejo, not far from the present-day Zone 6 in Guatemala City. However, out of habit, this important site has continued to be known as the ruins of Mixco Viejo.

Site description

The site is divided into groups designated by the letters A to F, the principal precincts being A, B and C, corresponding to the most important lineages. The other three groups were largely peripheral. Another six groups, smaller in size than the former, are scattered around the edges of the site. In general, the temple structures faced the west, although there are variations, while the platforms supporting the largest houses faced the banks of the ravines. Both the temple structures and the elongated platforms were surmounted by constructions made out of perishable materials. The principal material used at Mixco Viejo was slate or schist for the external face of the walls and a clay and pumice mixture for the filling. The facades of the most important buildings were decorated with stucco and then painted, and in certain cases there must have been murals, although none of these have survived. Even the floors of the ball courts may have been covered by a layer of stucco. The tallest buildings corresponded to the temples – nine in total – some of which stood 8 m high. The most representative were the double temples or twin pyramid platforms, which recall the architectural style of the Mexican plateau during the Postclassic. The elongated platforms that supported the ‘large houses’ can be found in each principal group, forming plazas. These had numerous accesses formed by sloping balustrades with vertical finial blocks. The ball courts were of the closed, I-variety. Wide and extremely long, they were accessed by stairways at both ends. The parallel walls sloped, in the talud style, with vertical finial blocks, and they were lined with benches. The markers, embedded in the top of the walls, were stone carved butts in the shape of a serpent head, with an anthropomorphic head emerging from the open mouth.

Group A

This is situated in the north-eastern section of the site and consists of a series of buildings distributed around two plazas, the most predominant constructions being the elongated platforms. There is a temple platform with a double stairway in the middle of one of the plazas and a sunken ball court in relation to the level of the plaza. One of the plazas contains various small shrines and a series of small platforms for supporting dwellings made of perishable materials.

Group B

This is situated in the middle of the site on a large plateau surrounded by small ravines. It consists of several structures distributed around a large enclosed plaza which includes twin temples, 6 m high, platforms for palaces or large houses, shrines and another sunken ball court. Larger than the former ball court, this construction is 44.5 m long and 9 m wide between the benches and 17 m at the ends. Except for one platform with four access stairways, the others have only two or a single stairway. Its most outstanding characteristic is a large retaining wall to the south, which reinforced the hill on which the group stands.

Group C

This is situated further west and has an uneven appearance in relation to the former groups. It is divided into two sub-groups of structures which run east-west, the principal constructions being Pyramid Cl, built in several stages and standing 6 m high, and Platform C2. The latter is the largest building at the site, measuring 47×14 m and standing over 4 m high. It is composed of two tiers with several stairways on the top tier. Further to the north, behind this large platform, are various other structures, possibly corresponding to a residential group.

Edgar Carpio

From: ‘The Maya: an architectural and landscape guide’, produced jointly by the Junta de Andulacia and the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, 2010, pp488-490.

Mixco Viejo

Mixco Viejo

1. Group A; 2. Group B; 3. Group C; 4. Group D; 5. Group E; 6. Ball Court; 7. Double Pyramid.

How to get there;

A bus passes along 1A Avenida at its junction with the PanAmerican Highway in Trébol. This is the starting point for buses to Antigua and other routes heading north. There’s a bus whose destination is Pachalum which passes through at around 09.15 (it might be early or late). Ask the lad who’s there everyday (so he told me) for more information. Q25 each way. There’s a bus which passes the approach road to the ruins returning to Guatemala City at 15.00 and 16.30, more or less.


14d 52’ 26” N

90d 39’ 45” W



More on the Maya

Edzna – Campeche – Mexico



More on the Maya

Edzna – Campeche


This site is situated barely 60 km south-east of the city of Campeche, on the road to China, Pocyaxum, Nohacal and Nohyaxche. The archaeological area extends across the northern part of a broad valley in the shape of a horseshoe, with the open section in the south. Several floodable areas were modified before the Common Era, when dams, embankments and wide canals several kilometres in length were built as part of a system of hydraulic works. The present-day name was probably coined in the Postclassic as a reference to a ruling lineage: the Itzas. The actual place name may have been Ytzna, Ytz, to refer to the Itzas, Na, house, ‘house of the Itzas’. During the Classic period (AD 250-900) the city had its own emblem glyph and also used another hieroglyph to identify the territory under its control.

Pre-Hispanic history

The earliest findings date from 600 BC and the preHispanic occupation ended around 1450. This timeline is documented by the ceramics, architecture and sculpture. Towards 600 BC, a small farming community laid down the foundations for a settlement that would gain masonry buildings a few centuries later. The political and social organisation permitted the development of a society governed by a small group of families who professed to have ties with the ancestors and gods. The orderly division of labour led to the construction of efficient hydraulic works that drained large sections of the valley, subsequently used for residential purposes, and generated farming surpluses. The earliest monumental architecture recorded at Edzna is of the Peten variety, which flourished simultaneously throughout the Yucatan Peninsula and the north of Guatemala and Belize. The images of the rulers were represented on stelae, tablets and altars, often incorporating dates, names and important events. Around AD 550 the method of construction began to change, giving rise to buildings with larger interior spaces and more carefully cut veneer stones, which we now identify with the Puuc style. Almost at the same time, buildings with features now known to be typical of Chenes architecture also emerged. These works were replaced around AD 950 by constructions that denoted a new era in which the Chontals appear to have played an important role. The final centuries of occupation witnessed expansions to the principal constructions, with the new wings borrowing materials from abandoned buildings. This architecture is known as Late or Postclassic.

Site description

Situated in the core area of the settlement is a large plaza measuring approximately 16,000 sq m and aligned with the cardinal points. On the north side stands the Platform of the Knives; the west is bounded by the Nohoch Na (‘Great House’); the Ball Court and South Temple occupy the south side; and the east side is taken up by the Great Acropolis, an architectural mass measuring 160 x 160 m and standing 6 m high. Other monumental structures stand on top of it. Nearby lie 20 or so large architectural groups, mainly covered by vegetation. The most important of them are the Fortress, just south of the Great Acropolis, groups 2, 3 and 4, north of it, and the Old Sorceress Group, which has been partly excavated and restored. Explorations of the constructions have revealed that the builders aligned the axes of symmetry with astronomical phenomena and used modules or average measurements, especially multiples of 20, such as 80 m and 160 m. This practice, common in the Maya region, was previously used by the Olmecs and in other societies in ancient Mexico.

Great acropolis.

This is the result of the efforts of many generations of Maya labourers. The earliest buildings, now buried beneath later constructions, were erected just before the Common Era. The main buildings on the Great Acropolis today are the Temple of Five Storeys, the North Temple, the House of the Moon, and the South-West and North-West Temples. All these buildings had religious and ceremonial functions, although during the end of the Classic period and in the Postclassic there were probably elite residences on the west side of Five Storeys. Other spaces that were important in the daily life of the people associated with the government can be seen in the Puuc Courtyard, in the north-west section of the complex. The main entrance to the Great Acropolis is on the west side, where a stairway composed of large stone steps requires a certain effort to reach the top. Just below the upper courtyard, on the left or north side, is a small square-shaped entrance that led to a steam bath or pibna (temazcal in Central Mexico). This probably corresponds to the Postclassic, although one of the jambstones bears a fragment of an inscription from the Classic period.

Temple of the five storeys.

The clearest example of gradual expansion is the Peten pyramid platform nowadays partly covered by this building. On its east side it had nine sections crowned by a temple. In the middle, flanking the central stairway, are convex taludes or slopes, which can also be seen on the north side. These are the mouldings corresponding to the platform sections. In Peten times (the early centuries before the Common Era) ‘apron’ mouldings were ypically used, like the ones that can be seen in the lower sections of the east side and on certain recessed parts of the upper sections on the north side. Around the 9th century these mouldings were covered by better-cut and better-assembled blocks, with less use of wedges but creating a wide curve to achieve the type of enormous balustrades which to date have only been found at Edzna. The five-storey construction with corbel vaulted rooms on the west side of the building also corresponds to the Terminal Classic (AD 900-1000). Viewed in all their detail, the differences reveal a combination of Puuc and Chenes features. The lower part of the stairway is also an addition, made from recycled blocks with hieroglyphics that once formed part of two Peten stairways. The fifth level is occupied by a temple which had a tall roof comb, part of which can still be seen today; it once had painted stucco pieces but these have all but disappeared. Not counting the temple, the west side of the building comprises 20 rooms that may have been dwellings for officials. This elite residential complex is similar to the ones that have been reported at other Maya cities in the peninsula, such as the Acropolis at Ek’ Balam and the ‘palaces’ at Santa Rosa Xtampak, Xkipche, Labna and Sayil.

Solar platform.

This stands opposite the west facade of the Temple of Five Storeys, almost at the very centre of the plaza. Used for observing astronomical phenomena in the east and west, it shares the same east-west orientation as the Temple of Five Storeys, the Nochoch Na and Structure 501.

North temple.

This defines the north side of the courtyard. Construction commenced at the beginning of the Common Era but it was subsequently modified on several occasions. Nowadays, we can see a mixture of Peten features at the base, stairways with balustrades leading to small shrines, emulating Rio Bee architecture, recessed panels with Puuc-style veneer stones, and capstones and the foundations of temples at the top, from the Postclassic period.

North-west temple.

Situated west of the North Temple stands a pyramid platform with several tiers, crowned by three rooms. The top of the platform leads down to the Puuc Courtyard, a space defined by the west side of the North Temple and by other low constructions with rooms, in the manner of a palace. Between the North Platform and the Solar Platform lie the ruins of a low, C-shaped platform that bears no relation or symmetry to the surrounding architecture. It was built in the Postclassic for residential purposes and is made out of recycled materials from constructions that had either collapsed or been abandoned.

House of the moon.

The structure popularly known as the House of the Moon stands on the south side of the courtyard. Excavated in the 1960s by Roman Pina Chan and restored by Raul Pavon Abreu, it evokes the style of a Cubist work. Large lateral taludes or slopes were erroneously incorporated as part of the architectural restoration works, erasing the traces of several tiers. Unfortunately, it was restored at a time when little heed was paid to the evidence furnished by excavations. Nearby, to the west, is a three-tier pyramid platform surmounted by five rooms. This structure is known as the South-West Temple.

Platform of the knives.

This seals the north side of the site’s Great Plaza and has stairways on all four sides. At the east and west ends it once comprised masonry rooms in the classic Puuc style, while the middle section was subsequently used to build several smaller and poorer-quality rooms. It owes its name to the discovery of flint knives during the excavation and restoration of the east section by Pina Chan in the 1970s. The central and west sections of the platform were explored in the 1980s by Luis Millet and Heber Ojeda from the INAH.

Courtyard of the ambassadors.

Situated west of the Platform of the Knives is a small plaza, approximately 900 sq m, surrounded by low constructions, mainly from the Early and Late Postclassic (AD 1000-1250- 1450). Two buildings in the south-west section have several entrances formed by columns. South of these constructions is a partly restored ramp. South of the courtyard, behind the balustraded stairway, is what appears to be an arch but is in fact a sub-structure minus its lateral walls. The name of the courtyard was coined in the 1990s as a show of goodwill to the ambassadors of the European countries that provided funding for several excavation campaigns at Edzna with refugees from Guatemala.

Nohoch na.

The west side of the Great Plaza is dominated by this large building 135 m long, 30 m wide and 9 m high. Four long galleries on the top of the building were accessed by 12 entrances formed by masonry pilasters. It once had a vaulted ceiling but none of this has survived. It also had wide stairways (120 m long) on both sides and was possibly used for storing, exhibiting and redistributing the rulers’ wealth: farming products, textiles, animal skins, ceramics and miscellaneous utensils. The east side was excavated by Luis Millet and Florentino Garcia in the mid-1980s.

South temple.

The south side of the Great Plaza at Edzna is defined by the Ball Court and this building, a large four-tier pyramid platform in the Peten style with recesses and stone tenons at the corners. Viewed from the plaza, it is possible to see the rear section, a large talud running the entire length of the central axis of symmetry. The stairway facade constitutes the south side. The temple at the top was built between AD 600 and 800 with the carefully cut blocks typical of Puuc architecture.

Ball court.

Like all the great regional capitals of the day, Edzna had a specific building for the practice of the life and death ritual that we now know as the ball game. The court provided a stage for the enactment of the mythical confrontation between opposing deities and essences (light and dark, east and west, etc.) and was the focal point around which daily life revolved. It was not so much a sport as the celebration of a constant cycle of renewal. The axis of the Ball Court runs north-south and displays the veneer stones typical of Puuc architecture. Embedded into the vertical walls, on both slopes, are small fragments of the stone rings. In terms of its size, the court is comparable to the one at Coba (Coba Group) and two of the courts at Chichen Itza, all of which also have a north-south axis.

Small acropolis.

This is situated just south of the Great Acropolis but has only a quarter of the latter’s volume (70 x 70 m and 5 m high). The main entrance is situated at the middle of the west side, where the ancient Maya concentrated most of the stelae found at the site (now removed for their greater preservation and future display; some of them can be seen at the entrance to the archaeological site). Four buildings arranged around a courtyard have been excavated at the top of the acropolis. Most of the buildings have Peten sub-structures, but the builders of Postclassic times added reliefs and blocks with varying motifs to the structure on the east side to create a stairway. This explains why many of the cants display reliefs of standing or seated figures, crouched jaguars, heads and geometric and curvilinear geometric shapes.

Temple of the masks.

A large guano palm roof protects the polychrome stucco features that represent the sun god at two important moments for the preHispanic world view: dawn and dusk. The sun god is depicted with a human form and with the ornaments and accessories (ear spools, nose rings, headdresses, etc.) used by pre-Columbian dignitaries. Although framed by light blue bands, the sun god is mainly painted red, which was a sacred colour. The east side of the building displays the god of the sunrise and the west side displays the god of the sunset. These masks have been dated to the early centuries of the Common Era (Early Classic). Masks in general had been common features at numerous Maya sites since the Preclassic, nearly always flanking the stairways of temples and shrines dedicated to K’inich Ahau, the sun god.

Structure 512.

This is situated north-west of the Great Plaza, on the path leading to the Old Sorceress Group. Its architecture is reminiscent of Chichén Itzá, with a lower sloping wall, simple moulding and a low wall around the perimeter. This construction is unusual in that the main facade displays two drum columns and there are two monolithic columns inside. It therefore represents a combination of Puuc architecture and the Terminal Classic architecture that succeeded it. The similarity with Chichén Itzá must not be taken as proof of proliferation or conquest. The distance between the two sites as the bird flies is 210 km, a journey of 12 to 14 days by land. We believe that the similarities are due to the fact that both sites embraced the same new construction ideas that emerged in the Terminal Classic and were manifested in architecture and sculpture. As more sites in the north of the peninsula are excavated, we will surely find more similar ruins from that period, well-known already in eastern Yucatan but poorly represented in the archaeological findings in other regions.

Old sorceress group.

This is situated 800 m west of the Great Plaza. It was built in 300 or 400 BC on a large level piece of land with a surface area of nearly one hectare. Six buildings arranged around a courtyard of approximately 1,500 sq m have been recorded. The two buildings on the east side contained small spaces for rituals. A square altar stands at the centre of the courtyard. On the north and south sides are elongated mounds of rubble as yet unexplored. On the east side we can see a large pyramid platform, standing just over 20 m high; only the lower eastern section has been excavated and restored. Most of the visible buildings in this group were erected in the Peten style. The principal platform has rounded, recessed corners and a central stairway with enormous blocks of limestone. Similar elements can be seen on the stairways of the buildings on the east side.

Resting at the foot of the pyramid platform are large blocks of stone corresponding to the ‘apron’ moulding on the first tier of the construction. One of them was used at the beginning of the 20th century as a table for depositing offerings to a legendary figure. The peasants who passed by on the way to the fields would leave coins and water. On their way home, they would find food in exchange for what they had left. One day an inquisitive young boy decided to hide to see who the mysterious person was. The peasants tried to persuade him not to, but he would not listen. After a long wait, he saw an old woman, but a black dog accompanying her saw him and followed him. The boy ran home, fell seriously ill and confessed his mischief. A few days later he died and the old sorceress stopped trading with the peasants. The legend recalls an ancient Maya legend in which a woman helps people. With certain differences, the tale evokes that of the old woman of Uxmal whose dwarf son, hatched from an egg, came to rule the land. The Popol Vuh also makes reference to an old woman who looked after two twins. In short, the old sorceress and the grandmother personify the ancient moon goddess, who according to the ancient Maya helped human beings in a number of ways, being linked to weaving, predictions, medicine and childbirth. However, wrongful behaviour could cause the moon goddess to bring about floods, drowning and death.


Thirty-two stelae or fragments have been recorded at Edzna. The earliest date is AD 652, which has been deciphered on Stela 22 and on the hieroglyphic stairway at the bottom of the west side of the Temple of Five Storeys. The latest date inscription found is AD 869 (Stela 9). Older stelae (from batkun 8) have also been found; these were probably carved in the early centuries of the Common Era but they have yet to be dated. The principal motif represented on the stelae at Edzna is the powerful ruler of the city, with rich garb and a variety of necklaces, bracelets and religious and political symbols. He is nearly always standing and usually has his eyes fixed on a space to observer’s left. His hands are only empty when he is seated on a throne. He usually carries a sceptre, a warrior’s mace (a trefoil element) or a shield. Several stelae graphically depict the victory of the ruler of Edzna standing over one or more captives either with their hands tied or in an uncomfortable position. The epigraphic and iconographic analysis conducted by Carlos Pallan Gayol (INAH) indicates that to date we have the images of at least ten rulers of the ancient Maya city, stretching from AD 633 to 869 (not including the Early Classic rulers). Future research will undoubtedly shed more light on these and other rulers of Edzna, because the ceramic and architectural timelines suggest that there were more high-ranking officials. Other stone monuments found during the excavations include lintels, serpent heads, tablets and altars. The best sculptures and some of the stelae from Edzna are exhibited at the entrance to the archaeological area.

Importance and relations

Edzna was one of the principal capitals in the western peninsula for several centuries, during the beginning of the Common Era and up to just after the 10th century. It was a contemporary of other great settlements in this part of the Maya region, such as Oxkintok, Uxmal, Jaina, Acanmul, Itzimte, Santa Rosa Xtampak, Dzibilnocac and Champoton. As time passed, the trading of products and man-made objects increased. Items made of shell and conch from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean reached Edzna. Obsidian from El Chayal, Guatemala, has also been reported, arriving throughout most of the Classic period. Other obsidian objects and various basalt and andesite objects travelled to Edzna from the Chiapas Highlands, Veracruz, Hidalgo and Michoacan. The jadeite pieces came from the River Motagua valley. Throughout the centuries, the pottery traditions also changed, giving way to vessels produced in the region and the importation of polychrome vessels and plates from Peten, the Campeche coast, Northern Yucatan and Belize.

From: ‘The Maya: an architectural and landscape guide’, produced jointly by the Junta de Andulacia and the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, 2010, pp293-299.



  1. Great Plaza; 2. Great Acropolis; 3. Temple of the Five Storeys; 4. Solar Platform; 5. North temple; 6. North-west Temple; 7. Puuc Courtyard; 8. House of the Moon; 9. Platform of the Knives; 10. Courtyard of the Ambassadors; 11. Nonoch Na; 12. South temple; 13. Ball Court; 14. Small Acropolis.

Getting there;

From Campeche. Combis leave from Calle Chihuahua, east of the main market. Actually enters the parking of the site. On the return wait for the next combi. It will take you, first, to the end of the line at Bonfil but then returns directly to Campeche, this time missing out the archaeological site. M$45 each way.


19d 36′ 10″ N

90d 13′ 53″ W



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