The renegades, traitors and ‘capitalist-roaders’ within the Communist Party of China

32 years after his death the 'capitalist-roaders' ride on Mao's back

32 years after his death the ‘capitalist-roaders’ ride on Mao’s back – Nanning, September 2008

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The renegades, traitors and ‘capitalist-roaders’ within the Communist Party of China

Opposite the title page of my copy of the odious Trotsky’s so-called ‘biography’ of Comrade Stalin, entitled ‘Stalin – an appraisal of the man and his influence’, is a reproduction of a poster showing the members of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party just after the victory of the 1917 October Revolution. Below that is a schematic giving their names – a number of whom I cannot remember hearing about before (and so indicating that they might have been on the CC but they were not necessarily that important in the construction of Socialism in the nascent Soviet Union).

At the bottom of the page is written;

‘Of the thirty-one members and alternate members of the October Central Committee, some of whose portraits appear above, only two were alive in 1946 – Stalin and Alexandra Kollontai.’

Now that’s just under thirty years. I don’t quite understand the point being made by the publisher of this version of Trotsky’s vitriolic attack upon Comrade Stalin.

And there’s no explanation about why they were no longer alive in 1946. For example, VI Lenin died prematurely because he was the victim of an assassination attempt, M Uritsky died of an assassin’s bullet, FE Dzerzhinsky (Iron Felix) died of heart failure after a major speech at a Central Committee meeting where he attacked the ‘United Opposition’ of Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamanev.

The implication seems to be that there should be no change in the leadership of a Communist Party but the very same people who take an anti-Soviet stance would argue that some leaders of Communist parties stay in their positions of responsibility for longer than is healthy – which does have a certain validity but which is a debate for a different place.

A social revolution, and especially a Socialist Revolution, is a very complex thing. It has been so throughout history, is at present (in those few revolutionary movements still in existence) and will be in the future.

Individuals join a revolutionary movement for a myriad of reasons. Some are/will/might;

  • committed revolutionaries who hate the system of oppression and exploitation and have a perspective of a different future for the vast majority of the population
  • opportunists who think the train they have jumped on is the best for their self-advancement
  • downright spies and traitors planted by the ruling class in their attempt to prevent the inevitable
  • dilettantes who chose to join a revolutionary movement because other organisations don’t offer anything substantial but who don’t fundamentally accept what joining the movement actually means
  • just hangers on, who are ignorant of the consequences of their actions and can swing either way when the going gets tough
  • ideologically weak and crack when the pressure of the ruling class becomes too great
  • betray the movement when put under the slightest pressure
  • empty-headed and never thought of the consequences of what they had signed up to do
  • hate the present oppressive system but don’t realise that the only way to destroy it is to substitute the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie with the dictatorship of the proletariat
  • think a revolution is a game and don’t understand the implications of what Chairman Mao meant when he said ‘a revolution is not a dinner party’
  • a waste a space and a waste of time
  • intellectuals who think they know better and are astounded when the people don’t accept their sophistication and superior leadership
  • start off being honest but end up getting seduced by the power that a little learning provides them, thanks to their involvement in the movement but forgetting their background
  • forget their background (I hate the term ‘roots’, but that’s the general sense) and think they are better than the hoi poloi
  • think they have an innate right to be in positions of leadership and take umbrage when that’s challenged
  • like to criticise but don’t like to be criticised
  • don’t consider that self-criticism is an integral part of being a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary
  • think they don’t need to study to understand the theory of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism and that they will learn from the process of osmosis
  • get tired and take the easy way out which often turns to a counter-revolutionary stance
  • get old and find that the revolution they thought about in their youth is not the revolution through which they are living
  • resent ‘unknowns’, strangers, new entrants and others who haven’t earned their positions taking over positions of responsibility as they represent the general momentum of the revolution
  • can’t keep up with the pace of change
  • challenged by youth who they see as being ignorant
  • try to take the easy way out
  • give up
  • run away
  • have doubts, about themselves and the reason for carrying on
  • courageous
  • cowards
  • lazy
  • liars
  • selfish
  • arrogant

But it’s the Revolution, that inanimate but also living organism, that is always in control.

Anyone who has been part of the Marxist-Leninist movement – in whatever country, in whatever epoch – since the formulation of Marxist theory in the middle of the 19th century will have encountered variations of the above. Indeed they will display some of those traits themselves, often ones that are contradictory.

This doesn’t mean that certain individuals might have been useful, even fundamental, to the revolution in the past but the fact is that a revolution is an uncontrollable force; it crushes some of those who were it’s darlings in the past but who become obstructionist in the present; some get left behind as the revolution has decided to take a different course from that expected; some get bitter about their lack of understanding of the radical changes in the revolutionary process; and those who were once friends of the revolution become its enemies as their own personal interests take precedence over the revolution itself.

The leader of the gang of renegades, traitors and ‘capitalist-roaders’ represented below is, without a shadow of a doubt, Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-chi) who showed his true colours in the early days of the People’s Republic. Perhaps one of Comrade Mao‘s greatest failings was not ridding the Party of this revisionist and ‘capitalist-roader’ sooner. It was around him, and under his influence, that the others were able to spread their poisonous line within the Party.

Liu must have had supporters in the highest levels of the Party, probably in the form of Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai).

Liu Shaoqi [Liu Shao-chi] (1898-1969)

Collections of His Writings

Selected Works of Liu Shaoqi, Volume 1, (Beijing: FLP, 1984), 463 pages.

Selected Works of Liu Shaoqi, Volume 2, (Beijing: FLP, 1991), 1st ed., 487 pages.

Three Essays on Party-Building, by Liu Shaoqi, includes: How to Be a Good Communist (1939), On Inner-Party Struggle (1941), and On the Party (1945). This edition uses Pinyin versions of Chinese names. It may or may not have been altered in other ways from earlier English editions. (Peking: FLP, 1980), 316 pages.

On the Agrarian Reform Law, by Liu Shao-chi. Included in The Agrarian Reform Law of the People’s Republic of China – Together with other relevant documents on pages 75-104. (Peking: FLP, 1950)

How To Be a Good Communist, by Liu Shao-chi. First English edition of the Chinese version published in December 1949. [Note: This is the notorious book on self-cultivation that was strongly criticized during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.] (Peking: FLP, 1951), 136 pages.

Internationalism and Nationalism, by Liu Shao-chi. This pamphlet is probably the translation of an article that appeared in Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily] on Nov. 1, 1948, or else is based on that article. (Peking: FLP, n.d. [but probably 1952]), 63 pages.

The Political Report of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to the Eighth National Congress of the Party, by Liu Shao-chi, September 15, 1956. (Peking: FLP, 1956), 102 pages.

Report on the Work of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to the Second Session of the Eighth National Congress, by Liu Shao-chi, May 5, 1958, 51 pages. [This speech is taken from pages 16-61 of the 1958 pamphlet Second Session of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Peking: FLP, 1958), 99 pages.] Liu Shao-chi’s speech only, full Pamphlet

Opening Speech by Chairman Liu Shao-chi, at the meeting to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Oct. 1, 1959. From the Supplement to Peking Review, Vol. 2, 39, Oct. 1, 1959, 2 pages.

The Victory of Marxism-Leninism in China, by Liu Shao-chi, Sept. 14, 1959. An article written for the World Marxist Review in celebration of the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. From Peking Review, Vol. 2, 39, Oct. 1, 1959, 10 pages. Pamphlet version (Peking: FLP, 1959), 46 pages.

Address at the Meeting in Celebration of the 40th Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China, by Liu Shao-chi, June 30, 1961, with two appendices (editorials from Hongqi and Renmin Ribao). (Peking: FLP, 1961), 46 pages. Version from Peking Review, July 7, 1961, 7 pages.

Joint Statement of Chairman Liu Shao-chi and President Choi Yong Kun, on the conclusion of the visit by the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to China in June 1963. (Peking: FLP, 1963), 24 pages.

Deng Xiaoping [Teng Hsiao-ping] (1904-1997)

Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (3 volumes)

Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (1938-1965) This collection was first published in Chinese in 1989 and in English in 1992. Smaller file, OCR scan, larger file, image scan.

Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (1975-1982) This collection was first published in Chinese in 1983 and in English in 1984. Smaller file, OCR scan, larger file, image scan.

Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (1982-1992) This collection was first published in Chinese in 1993 and in English in 1994. Smaller file, OCR scan, larger file, image scan.

Constitution of the Communist Party of China and Report on the Revision of the Constitution of the CPC by Teng Hsiao-ping. This is the Party Constitution adopted by the Eighth National Congress on Sept. 26, 1956. The report of the the revision of the Constitution was delivered by Teng Hsiao-ping [Deng Xiaoping] at that Congress on Sept. 16, 1956. (Peking: FLP, 1956), 118 pp.

Speech by Teng Hsiao-ping, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, at the Mass Rally of People of All Walks of Life Held in Peking to Support the Just Stand of the Soviet Union and Oppose U.S. Imperialism’s Wrecking of the Four-Power Conference of Government Heads, May 20, 1960, 6 pages. From the pamphlet Support the Just Stand of the Soviet Union and Oppose U.S. Imperialism’s Wrecking of the Four-Power Conference of Government Heads, (Peking: FLP, 1960), 45 pages. Deng’s speech, full pamphlet

Speech by Chairman of the Delegation of the People’s Republic of China, Teng Hsiao-ping, at the Special Session of the U.N. General Assembly, April 10, 1974. (Peking: FLP, 1974), 28 pages.

Build Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, a collection of speeches and essays from 1982 to 1984. 1st edition, (Beijing: FLP, 1985), 88 pages.

Chen Yun (1905-1995)

Selected Works of Chen Yun, Volume 1: 1926-1949, 2nd ed., (Beijing: FLP, 2001), 419 pages.

Selected Works of Chen Yun, Volume 2: 1949-1956, 1st ed., (Beijing: FLP, 1997), 359 pages.

Selected Works of Chen Yun, Volume 3: 1956-1994, 1st ed., (Beijing: FLP, 1999), 409 pages.

Vice-Premier Chen Yun’s Speech at the Reception Given by Bulgarian Ambassador Celebrating the National Day of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria (Excerpts), September 9, 1958. Included in the pamphlet Oppose U.S. Military Provocations in the Taiwan Straits Area – A Selection of Important Documents, (Peking: FLP, 1958), 83 pages. (See pages 9-13.)

Lin Biao [Lin Piao] (1907-1971)

Collections of his writings:

Selected Works of Lin Piao, ed. by the China Problems Research Center, (Hong Kong: 1970), 496 pages. This volume was prepared at a time when Lin Biao was Mao’s designated successor and before his disgrace and death in late 1971.

Speeches and Instructions of Lin Piao, 1966-1967, some translated by Western scholars, special issue of the academic journal Chinese Law and Government, Spring 1973, 108 pages.

Speeches and Instructions of Lin Piao, 1968-1971, some translated by Western scholars, special issue of the academic journal Chinese Law and Government, Summer 1973, 108 pages.

March Ahead Under the Red Flag of the General Line and Mao Tse-tung’s Military Thinking, by Lin Piao, originally in Hongqi, 19 (Oct. 1, 1959); in English translation in Peking Review, Vol. 2, 40, October 6, 1959, 8 pages, and in pamphlet form, (Peking: FLP, 1959), 34 pages.

Long Live the Victory of People’s War!, by Lin Piao [Lin Biao], Sept. 3, 1965. This famous essay was written in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of victory in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japan. It is often still viewed as an important statement of the role of people’s war in the world despite Lin’s own personal treachery later on. (Peking: FLP, 3rd ed., 1967), 76 pages.

Chairman Mao Has Elevated Marxism-Leninism to a Completely New Stage With Great Talent, letter from Lin Piao, March 11, 1966, 1 pages. [Also available in Peking Review, vol. 9, 26, June 24, 1966.]

Comrade Lin Piao’s Speech at the Mass Rally Celebrating the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, August 18, 1966, 3 pages. [Also available in Peking Review, vol. 9, 35, August 26, 1966.]

Comrade Lin Piao’s Speech at the Peking Rally to Receive Revolutionary Teachers and Students from All Parts of China, Aug. 31, 1966, 3 pages. [Also available in Peking Review, vol. 9, 37, September 9, 1966.]

The People’s Revolutionary Struggle Will Surely Triumph Over U.S. Imperialism’s Counter-Revolutionary Strategy – In commemoration of the first anniversary of the publication of Comrade Lin Piao’s essay ‘Long Live the Victory of People’s War!’, by Tung Ming, 3 pages. [Also available in Peking Review, vol. 9, September 9, 1966.]

Comrade Lin Piao’s Speech at the Peking Rally to Receive Revolutionary Teachers and Students from All Parts of China, September 15, 1966, 2 pages. [Also available in Peking Review, vol. 9, September 23, 1966.]

Lin Piao’s Inscription and Introduction to the Second Edition of Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-tung, December 16, 1966, 4 pages. [After the fall and death of Lin Piao these pages were of course removed from the 3rd edition of the Little Red Book. (The 1st edition had Lin Piao’s inscription but not his introduction.)]

Report to the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, delivered by Lin Piao on April 1 and adopted on April 14, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 112 pages.

Vice-Chairman Lin Piao’s Speech at the Rally Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China, October 1, 1969, 10 pages. From the pamphlet Fight for the Further Consolidation of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat – In Celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China. (Peking: FLP, 1969) Lin’s speech only, complete pamphlet, 54 pages.

Works about Lin Biao (Lin Piao): [See also the post on the Campaign to Criticize Lin Piao and Confucius.]

Great Victory for the Military Line of Chairman Mao Tsetung – A Criticism of Lin Piao’s Bourgeois Military Line in the Liaohsi-Shenyang and Peiping-Tientsin Campaigns, by Chan Shih-pu, (Peking: FLP, 1976), 124 pages plus 2 large maps.

Zhou Enlai [Chou En-lai] (1898-1976)

Selected Works

Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, Volume 1, (Beijing: FLP, 1981), 486 pages.

Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, Volume 2, (Beijing: FLP, 1989), 558 pages.

Four short notes from Minister of Foreign Affairs Chou En-lai to the U.N., regarding China’s rightful seat in the United Nations. These are included in the pamphlet Complete and Consolidate the Victory (Peking: FLP, May 1950), on pages 41-46.

Documents Concerning Premier Chou En-lai’s Visit to India and Burma, 4 documents including speeches and joint statements by Zhou Enlai. A supplement to the magazine People’s China, 1954, 14, July 16, 1954, 8 pages.

Report on the Question of Intellectuals, by Chou En-lai, Jan. 14, 1956, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 48 pages.

Political Report, by Chou En-lai, delivered at the Second Session of the Second National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference on January 30, 1956. (Peking: FLP, 1956), 51 pages.

Report on the Proposals for the Second Five-Year Plan for Development of the National Economy, by Chou En-lai, a speech delivered at the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China on September 16, 1956. This is the second part of a pamphlet which includes the Proposals of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China for the Second Five-Year Plan for Development of the National Economy (1958-1962). Chou’s speech only.

Current Tasks of Reforming the Written Language, by Chou En-lai, 23 pages. [This is from the 2nd edition (revised translation) of the pamphlet Reform of the Chinese Written Language, (Peking: FLP, 1965) Chou’s speech only.

Premier Chou En-lai’s Statement on the Situation in the Taiwan Straits Area, September 6, 1958. Included in the pamphlet Oppose U.S. Military Provocations in the Taiwan Straits Area – A Selection of Important Documents, (Peking: FLP, 1958), 83 pages. (See pages 2-6.)

Premier Chou En-lai’s Speech at the Reception Given by Korean Ambassador Celebrating the National Day of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Excerpts), September 9, 1958. Included in the pamphlet Oppose U.S. Military Provocations in the Taiwan Straits Area – A Selection of Important Documents, (Peking: FLP, 1958), 83 pages. (See pages 22-23.)

Report on the Work of the Government, by Chou En-lai, delivered at the Second National People’s Congress on April 18, 1959. (Peking: FLP, 1959), 80 pages.

A Great Decade, by Chou En-lai, 1959. Summing up the achievements of the country in the decade since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. (Peking: FLP, 1959), 45 pages.

Premier Chou En-lai’s Speech at Rumania’s National Day Reception Given by the Rumanian Ambassador to China, August 23, 1968, 9 pages. From the pamphlet Total Bankruptcy of Soviet Modern Revisionism, (Peking: FLP, 1968) Chou’s speech only.

Premier Chou En-lai’s Speech at Vietnam’s National Day Reception Given by the Vietnamese Ambassador to China, September 2, 1968, 12 pages. From the pamphlet Total Bankruptcy of Soviet Modern Revisionism, (Peking: FLP, 1968) Chou’s speech only.

Premier Chou En-lai’s Speech at the Reception Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China, September 30, 1969, 10 pages. From the pamphlet Fight for the Further Consolidation of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat – In Celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China. (Peking: FLP, 1969) Chou’s speech only.

Writings About Zhou Enlai

We Will Always Remember Premier Chou En-lai, a collection of articles and photographs, (Peking: FLP, 1977), 220 pages.

Zhu De [Chu Teh] (1886-1976)

Selected Works

Selected Works of Zhu De, 1st ed., (Peking: FLP, 1984), 454 pages.

The Battle Front of the Liberated Areas, by Chu Teh. This was the military report given on April 25, 1945 to the Seventh Congress of the CCP. This is the 3rd edition (with a revised translation) of the English pamphlet. (Peking: FLP, 1962), 89 pages.

Vice-Chairman Chu Teh’s Speech at the Reception Given by Vietnamese Ambassador Celebrating the National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Excerpts), September 2, 1958. Included in the pamphlet Oppose U.S. Military Provocations in the Taiwan Straits Area – A Selection of Important Documents, (Peking: FLP, 1958), 83 pages. (See page 21.)

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The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China

GPCR in Sining, Chinghai Province

GPCR in Sining, Chinghai Province

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The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China was the logical outcome of the many years of the increasingly bitter ideological struggle that had been taking place within the International Communist Movement since Khrushchev’s denunciation of Joseph Stalin at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in February 1956.

There had been many efforts (some would say too many) to try and bring the errant first Socialist State back to the revolutionary principles of Marxism-Leninism but by 1960 it was becoming obvious that the revisionists had become firmly entrenched in Lenin‘s and Stalin‘s Party. Weaknesses (and the similar entrenchment of revisionism and social democracy) in other Communist and Workers’ Parties worldwide also ensured that those seeking to restore capitalism – in deeds if not in words – in the Soviet Union could claim they were only reflecting the majority trend in the International Communist Movement.

Although the majority of the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party was still following the revolutionary road those ‘capitalist-roaders’ (as they were called in China) did exist – and even at the highest levels in the Party.

Those revolutionaries, under the leadership of Chairman Mao Tse-tung, had to act to prevent China from going down the same anti-Socialist road. It would be for the Chinese workers, peasants, soldiers and students to decide the fate of their country. So, on 8th August 1966, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was born – one of the most important and significant events in the history of Communism.

Basic Documents of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, adopted on Aug. 8, 1966, 20 pages. [This famous Circular of the Central Committee of the CCP was drawn up under Mao’s guidance and presents the 16 key points established to guide the GPCR.]

An Epoch-Making Document – In Commemoration of the Second Anniversary of the Publication of the Circular, May 17, 1968, 28 pages.

The Great Socialist [Proletarian] Cultural Revolution Series (1966-1967):

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (1), 2nd ed. (Peking: FLP, Oct. 1966), 78 pages. Includes these articles:

  • Hold High the Great Red Banner of Mao Tse-tung’s Thought and Actively Participate in the Great Socialist Cultural Revolution, editorial of the Liberation Army Daily [Jiefangjun Bao], April 18, 1966.
  • Never Forget the Class Struggle, editorial of the Liberation Army Daily, May 4 1966.
  • On ‘Three-Family Village’ — The Reactionary Nature of Evening Chats at Yenshan and Notes from Three-Family Village, by Yao Wen-yuan, May 10, 1966.

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (2), (Peking: FLP, 1966), 68 pages. Includes these articles:

  • Open Fire at the Black Anti-Party and Anti-Socialist Line!, by Kao Chu, first published in the Liberation Army Daily, May 8, 1966.
  • Heighten Our Vigilance and Distinguish the True from the False, by Ho Ming, first published in the Kuangming Daily, May 8, 1966.
  • Teng To’s Evening Chats at Yenshan is Anti-Party and Anti-Socialist Double-Talk, compiled by Lin Chieh, Ma Tse-min, Yen Chang-huei, Chou Ying, Teng Wen-sheng and Chin Tien-Liang, first published in the Liberation Army Daily and the Kuangming Daily on May 8, 1966.
  • On the Bourgeois Stand of Frontline and the Peking Daily, by Chi Pen-yu, first published in Red Flag, No. 7, 1966.

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (3), (Peking: FLP, 1966), 32 pages. Includes these articles:

  • Sweep Away All Monsters, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], June 1, 1966.
  • A Great Revolution That Touches People to Their Very Souls, editorial of Renmin Ribao, June 2, 1966.
  • Mao Tse-tung’s Thought is the Telescope and Microscope of Our Revolutionary Cause, editorial of Jiefangjun Bao [Liberation Army Daily], June 7, 1966.
  • We are Critics of the Old World, editorial of Renmin Ribao, June 8, 1966.

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (4), (Peking: FLP, 1966), 56 pages, Includes these articles:

  • Long Live the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, editorial of Hongqi [Red Flag], No. 8, 1966.
  • Capture the Positions in the Field of Historical Studies Seized by the Bourgeoisie, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], June 3, 1966.
  • Tear Aside the Bourgeois Mask of ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’, editorial of Renmin Ribao, June 4, 1966.
  • New Victory for Mao Tse-tung’s Thought, editorial of Renmin Ribao, June 4, 1966.
  • To Be Proletarian Revolutionaries or Bourgeois Royalists?, editorial of Renmin Ribao, June 5, 1966.

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (5), (Peking: FLP, 1966), 36 pages, pamphlet with just one article:

  • Raise High the Great Red Banner of Mao Tse-tung’s Thought and Carry the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Through to the End — Essential Points for Propaganda and Education in Connection with the Great Cultural Revolution, editorial of Jiefangjun Bao [Liberation Army Daily], June 6, 1966.

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (6), (Peking: FLP, 1966), 32 pages. Includes these articles:

  • A New Stage of the Socialist Revolution in China, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], July 17, 1966.
  • The Sunlight of the Party Illuminates the Road of the Great Cultural Revolution, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], June 24, 1966.
  • Trust the Masses, Rely on the Masses, editorial of Hongqi [Red Flag], No. 9, 1966.
  • From the Masses, to the Masses, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], July 21, 1966.
  • Be a Pupil of the Masses Before You Become a Teacher of the Masses, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], July 29, 1966.

The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (7), (Peking: FLP, 1967), 36 pages. Includes these articles:

  • The Programmatic Document of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, editorial of Hongqi [Red Flag], No. 10, 1966.
  • Master the Ideological Weapon of the Great Cultural Revolution, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], Aug. 11, 1966.
  • Study the 16-Point Decision, Know it Well and Apply It, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], Aug. 13, 1966.
  • Sailing the Seas Depends on the Helmsman, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], Aug. 15, 1966.
  • Revolutionary Youth Should Learn from the People’s Liberation Army, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], Aug. 28, 1966.
  • Hold Fast to the Main Orientation in the Struggle, editorial of Hongqi [Red Flag], No. 12, 1966.

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (8), (Peking: FLP, 1967), 28 pages. Includes these articles:

  • Comrade Lin Piao’s Speech at the Peking Mass Rally to Receive Revolutionary Teachers and Students From All Over China, Nov. 3, 1966.
  • Victory for the Proletarian Revolutionary Line Represented by Chairman Mao, editorial in Hongqi, No. 14, 1966.
  • Seize New Victories, editorial in Hongqi, No. 15, 1966.

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (9), (Peking: FLP, 1967), 28 pages, pamphlet with just one article:

  • Carry the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Through to the End, editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily] and Hongqi [Red Flag], Jan. 1, 1967.

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (10), (Peking: FLP, 1967), 48 pages. Includes these articles:

  • Message of Greetings to Revolutionary Rebel Organizations in Shanghai from the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, the State Council, the Military Commission of the Party’s Central Committee and the Cultural Revolution Group Under the Party’s Central Committee, Jan. 11, 1967.
  • Take Firm Hold of the Revolution, Promote Production and Utterly Smash the New Counterattack Launched by the Bourgeois Reactionary Line – Message to All Shanghai People, Jan. 4, 1967. Urgent Notice – From the Shanghai Workers’ Revolutionary Rebel General Headquarters and 31 Other Revolutionary Mass Organizations, Jan. 9, 1967.
  • Telegram Saluting Chairman Mao – From the Rally Held by the Revolutionary Rebel Organizations of Shanghai and the Shanghai Liaison Centres of Revolutionary Rebel Organizations of Other Places to Celebrate the Message of Greetings of the Central Authorities and Completely Smash the New Counter-Attack by the Bourgeois Reactionary Line, from a rally held by revolutionary organizations in Shanghai, Jan. 12, 1967.
  • Oppose Economist and Smash the Latest Counterattack by the Bourgeois Reactionary Line – Editorial of Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily] and Hongqi [Red Flag], January 12, 1967.
  • Proletarian Revolutionaries, Unite, by Commentator, Hongqi, No. 2, 1967.

Other

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Pamphlets:

1966:

Mao Tse-tung’s Thought is the Invincible Weapon, four articles from 1966, 87 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1968)

1967:

The May Upheaval in Hongkong, by the Committee of Hongkong-Kowloon Chinese Compatriots of All Circles for the Struggle Against Persecution by the British Authorities in Hongkong, (Hongkong: 1967), 191 pages. About the extension of the Cultural Revolution to Hongkong.

Follow Chairman Mao and Advance in the Teeth of Great Storms and Waves, article about Mao’s famous swim in the Yangtse along with editorials from Renmin Ribao and Jiefangjun Bao, July 24-26, 1966, 28 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1967)

Forward Along the High Road of Mao Tse-tung’s Thought — In Celebration of the 17th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China, including editorials and speeches by Lin Piao and Chou En-lai on Oct. 1, 1966, 42 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1967) PDF format [2,031 KB].

Betrayal of Proletarian Dictatorship is the Heart of the Book on ‘Self-Cultivation’, by the editorial departments of Renmin Ribao and Hongqi, May 8, 1967, 24 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1967)

Patriotism or National Betrayal? – On the Reactionary Film Inside Story of the Ching Court, by Chi Pen-yu, 44 pages. Original Chinese version in Hongqi #5, 1967. (Peking: FLP, 1967)

Great Victory for Chairman Mao’s Revolutionary Line – Warmly Hail the Birth of Peking Municipal Revolutionary Committee, including speeches by Chou En-lai, Chiang Ching, Hsieh Fu-chih, Chang Chun-chiao and editorials from Renmin Ribao and Jifangjun Bao, (Peking: FLP, 1967), 60 pages.

Commemorating Lu Hsun – Our Forerunner in the Cultural Revolution, a collection of speeches and articles on the 30th anniversary of the death of Lu Hsun, including speeches by Chen Po-ta, Yao Wen-yuan, Kuo Mo-jo and others, (Peking: FLP, 1967), 68 pages.

The Struggle Between the Two Roads in China’s Countryside, by the editorial departments of Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jifangjun Bao, Nov. 23, 1967, 36 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1968)

1968:

Take the Road of the Shanghai Machine Tools Plant in Training Technicians from among the Workers – Two Investigation Reports on the Revolution in Education in Colleges of Science and Engineering, by the editorial departments of Renmin Ribao and Hongqi, 68 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1968)

On the Revolutionary ‘Three-in-One’ Combination, four editorials by Hongqi, Jiefangjun Bao, or Wenhui Bao in the first half of 1967, 48 pages. (Peking: FLP, 1968)

On the Re-Education of Intellectuals, by Renmin Ribao and Hongqi Commentators, originally in Hongqi, #3, 1968. (Peking: FLP, 1968), 20 pages.

Absorb Proletarian Fresh Blood – An Important Question in Party Consolidation, Hongqi [Red Flag] editorial, #4, Oct. 14, 1968. (Peking: FLP, 1968), 34 pages.

1969:

Put Mao Tse-tung’s Thought in Command of Everything, New Year editorial for 1969 by Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], Hongqi [Red Flag] and Jiefangjun Bao [Liberation Army Daily]. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 39 pages.

Grasp Revolution, Promote Production and Win New Victories on the Industrial Front, Renmin Ribao editorial, Feb. 21, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 26 pages.

Carry the Great Revolution on the Journalistic Front Through to the End — Repudiating the Counter-Revolutionary Revisionist Line on Journalism of China’s Khrushchov, by the editorial departments of Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jifangjun Bao. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 74 pages.

Hold Aloft the Banner of Unity of the Party’s Ninth Congress and Win Still Greater Victories, editorial of Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jifangjun Bao, June 9, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 26 pages.

Fight for the Further Consolidation of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat – In Celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China. Includes speeches by Lin Piao and Chou En-lai, an editorial, and slogans for the celebration. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 54 pages.

1970:

Usher In the Great 1970’s, 1970 New Year’s Day editorial of Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jiefangjun Bao. (Peking: FLP, 1970), 34 pages.

Take the Road of Integrating with the Workers, Peasants and Soldiers, on the orientation of the youth movement. (Peking: FLP, 1970), 105 pages.

Communists Should Be the Advanced Elements of the Proletariat – In Commemoration of the 49th Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China. (Peking: FLP, 1970), 20 pages.

1971:

Outstanding Proletarian Fighters, about outstanding proletarian revolutionaries arising in all walks of life in China. (Peking: FLP, 1971), 101 pages.

To Trumpet Bourgeois Literature and Art is to Restore Capitalism – A Repudiation of Chou Yang’s Reactionary Fallacy Adulating the ‘Renaissance’, the ‘Enlightenment’ and ‘Critical Realism’ of the Bourgeoisie, by the Shanghai Writing Group for Revolutionary Mass Criticism, (Peking: FLP, 1971), 53 pages.

1972:

Strive to Build a Socialist University of Science and Engineering, about the Cultural Revolution in education. (Peking: FLP, 1972), 85 pages. In addition to the title article by the Workers’ and PLA Men’s Mao Tsetung Thought Propaganda Team at Tsinghua University, this pamphlet also includes the Summary of the Forum on the Revolution in Education in Shanghai Colleges of Science and Engineering convened by Chang Chun-chiao an Yao Wen-yuan in Shanghai, June 2, 1970.

Strive for New Victories, in Celebration of the 23rd Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China, editorial by Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jiefangjun Bao, (Peking: FLP, 1972), 18 pages.

1974:

A Vicious Motive, Despicable Tricks – A Criticism of M. Antonioni’s Anti-China Film China, by Renmin Ribao Commentator, Jan. 30, 1974. (Peking: FLP, 1974), 23 pages.

1976:

A Summary of the Opinions of the Inner-Party Bourgeoisie Issues, a Guangzhou area regional CCP document which was reprinted by the Publicity Department of Zhongshan County Committee of the CCP, and which is based on theoretical seminar materials and also the relevant articles of some university journals. It is only to promote further discussion and study by comrades on the inner-party bourgeoisie issue. (July 8, 1976), 14 pages. This document is especially interesting in that it is in part a late period summary of the central aspects of the entire GPCR. It consists of the following six sections:

  • Chairman Mao’s scientific assertion that the bourgeoisie emerged within the Communist Party is a major development of Marxism-Leninism
  • On how to understand the problem that the bourgeoisie is just in the Communist Party
  • On the question of changes in class relations during the socialist period
  • On the root causes of the bourgeoisie within the party
  • About the characteristics of the bourgeoisie within the party and the contradictory nature of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie within the party
  • Recognition and struggle against the bourgeoisie in the party

(An English translation should be available soon.)

Collections of Documents from the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution:

Important Documents on the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China, which consists mostly of speeches by Lin Piao [Lin Biao]. Pocket edition with red plastic cover. (Peking: FLP, 1970), 350 pages.

And Mao Makes 5: Mao Tse-tung’s last great battle, edited with an Introduction by Raymond Lotta, (Chicago: Banner Press, September 1978), 539 pages.

Contents:

Introduction:

Section I: Background to the Struggle:

Section II: Criticize Lin Piao and Confucius:

  • Section II Intro:
  • Text 5: Carry the Struggle to Criticize Lin Piao and Confucius Through to the End
  • Text 6: Dare to Think and Do
  • Text 7: Study the Historical Experience of the Struggle Between the Confucian and Legalist Schools, by Liang Hsiao
  • Text 8: The Philosophy of the Communist Party is the Philosophy of Struggle, by Chiang Yu-ping
  • Text 9: Working Women’s Struggle Against Confucianism in Chinese History
  • Text 10: To Develop Industry We Must Initiate Technical Innovation, by Kung Hsiao-wen
  • Text 11: Has Absolute Music No Class Character?, by Chao Hua
  • Text 12: A Decade of Revolution in Peking Opera, by Chu Lan
  • Text 13: History Develops in Spirals, by Hung Yu
  • Text 14: Speech at Peking Rally Welcoming Cambodian Guests, by Wang Hung-wen

Section III: Fourth People’s Congress and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat Campaign:

Section IV: Criticize Water Margin:

  • Section IV Intro:
  • Text 22: Unfold Criticism of ‘Water Margin’
  • Text 23: Criticism of ‘Water Margin’, by Chu Fang-ming
  • Text 24: On Teng Hsiao-ping’s Counter-Revolutionary Offensive in Public Opinion (Excerpts), by Hung Hsuan

Section V: Criticize Teng and Beat Back the Right Deviationist Wind:

  • Section V Intro:
  • Text 25: Two Poems, by Mao Tse-tung
  • Text 26: Reversing Correct Verdicts Goes Against the Will of the People
  • Text 27: Counter-Revolutionary Political Incident at Tien An Men Square
  • Text 28: Communist Party of China Resolutions
  • Text 29: Firmly Keep to the General Orientation of the Struggle
  • Text 30: A General Program for Capitalist Restoration, by Cheng Yueh
  • Text 31: Criticism of Selected Passages of ‘Certain Questions on Accelerating the Development of Industry’
  • Text 32: Comments on Teng Hsiao-ping’s Economic Ideas of the Comprador Bourgeoisie, by Kao Lu and Chang Ko
  • Text 33: A New Type of Production Relations in a Socialist Enterprise
  • Text 34: Fundamental Differences Between the Two Lines in Education
  • Text 35: Repulsing the Right Deviationist Wind in the Scientific and Technological Circles
  • Text 36: What Is the Intention of People of the Lin Piao Type in Advocating ‘Private Ownership of Knowledge’?, by Liang Hsiao
  • Text 37: A Reactionary Philosophy That Stands on Its Head, by Hung Yu
  • Text 38: From Bourgeois Democrats to Capitalist-Roaders, by Chih Heng
  • Text 39: Capitalist-Roaders Are the Bourgeoisie Inside the Party, by Fang Kang
  • Text 40: Capitalist-Roaders Are Representatives of the Capitalist Relations of Production, by Chuang Lan
  • Text 41: Talks Concerning ‘Criticizing Teng Hsiao-ping and Repulsing Right Deviationist Wind’, by Chang Chun-chiao
  • Text 42: Deepen the Criticism of Teng Hsiao-ping in Anti-Quake and Relief Work
  • Text 43: Proletarians Are Revolutionary Optimists, by Pi Sheng

Biographical Material on the Four: 13 pages of photographs

Appendices: Documents from the Right:

  • Introduction:
  • Appendix 1: On the General Program of Work for the Whole Party and Whole Nation
  • Appendix 2: Some Problems in Accelerating Industrial Development
  • Appendix 3: On Some Problems in the Fields of Science and Technology
  • Appendix 4: Two Talks by Teng Hsiao-ping
  • Appendix 5: The Bitter Fruit of Maoism, by Y. Semyonov
  • Appendix 6: Speech at Special Session of UN General Assembly, by Teng Hsiao-ping
  • Appendix 7: A Complete Reversal of the Relations Between Ourselves and the Enemy, by Hsiang Chun
  • Appendix 8: CPC Central Committee Circular on Holding National Science Conference
  • Appendix 9: To Each According to His Work: Socialist Principle in Distribution, by Li Hung-lin

CCP Documents of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: 1966-67, (Hong Kong: Union Research Institute), 1967 [?], 361 pages. This work included the original Chinese language documents plus the English translations. This version, however, only includes the English translations.

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Communist Party of China (CPC) – history, resolutions and documents

In a Yenan cave house - Hsin Mang

In a Yenan cave house

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Communist Party of China (CPC) – history, resolutions and documents

Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party, adopted by the Enlarged Seventh Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on April 20, 1945, 72 pages. This is the revised translation from the Appendix to the 3rd edition of the pamphlet Our Study and the Current Situation, by Mao Tse-tung. (Peking: FLP, 1962)

Thirty Years of the Communist Party of China: An Outline History, by Hu Chiao-mu, (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1951), 100 pages.

Documents of the National Conference of the Communist Party of China, held in March 1955. Includes: the Communiqué, the resolution on the draft of the first 5-year plan, the resolution on the anti-Party bloc of Kao Kang and Jao Shu-shih, and the resolution on the establishment of central and local control committees. (Peking: Oct. 1955), 68 pages.

Documents of the Sixth Plenary Session (Enlarged) of the Seventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, a supplement to People’s China, Dec. 1, 1955, 24 pages.

Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Volume 1: Documents, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 332 pages.

Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Volume 2: Speeches, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 388 pages.

Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Volume 3: Greetings From Fraternal Parties, (Peking: FLP, 1956), 266 pages.

Constitution of the Communist Party of China and Report on the Revision of the Constitution of the CPC by Teng Hsiao-ping. This is the Party Constitution adopted by the Eighth National Congress on Sept. 26, 1956. The report of the the revision of the Constitution was delivered by Teng Hsiao-ping [Deng Xiaoping] at that Congress on Sept. 16, 1956. (Peking: FLP, 1956), 118 pp.

Second Session of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, seven reports and resolutions, including Report on the Work of the Central Committee of the CCP to the Second Session of the Eighth National Congress by Liu Shao-chi. (Peking: FLP, 1958), 99 pages.

Training Successors for the Revolution is the Party’s Strategic Task, 3 articles on this topic including the title article by An Tzu-wen from Hongqi, Nos. 17-18, 1964. (Peking: FLP, 1965), 68 pages.

Absorb Proletarian Fresh Blood – An Important Question in Party Consolidation, Hongqi [Red Flag] editorial, #4, Oct. 14, 1968. (Peking: FLP, 1968), 34 pages.

Communique of the Enlarged Twelfth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, adopted on Oct. 31, 1968. (Peking: FLP, 1968), 32 pages.

The Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), including the Report to the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China delivered by Lin Piao; The Constitution of the Communist Party of China; lists of members of the Central Committee and the Politburo; and several press communiques. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 206 pages. Lin Piao’s Report issued as a separate small pamphlet, 112 pages.

The Constitution of the Communist Party of China, adopted by the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, April 4, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 52 pages.

Hold Aloft the Banner of Unity of the Party’s Ninth Congress and Win Still Greater Victories, editorial of Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jifangjun Bao, June 9, 1969. (Peking: FLP, 1969), 26 pages.

Communists Should Be the Advanced Elements of the Proletariat – In Commemoration of the 49th Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China. (Peking: FLP, 1970), 20 pages.

Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Communist Party of China: 1921-1971, (Peking: FLP, 1971), 60 pages.

The Tenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), (Peking: FLP, 1973), 138 pages.

The Eleventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), (Peking: FLP, 1977), 270 pages.

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