Foreign intervention in the Soviet Union

The newly formed Red Army, 1918

The newly formed Red Army, 1918

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Foreign intervention in the Soviet Union

Once the capitalist and imperialist countries (which had been trying to destroy each others power for four years in the ‘First World War’ of 1914-19) realised that the October Revolution in Russia of the Bolsheviks, led by VI Lenin, was a revolution of a ‘new type’ they did all in their power to destroy the first workers’ state.

In this they used outright military intervention – when 14 nations united on the side of the reactionary forces of feudalism and Tsarism, the so-called ‘Whites’ – but also conspiracy, espionage, sabotage and any other tactics to undermine the revolution. Assassination was part of their game, using local dupes to carry out the act, which included the failed attempt upon the life of Comrade Lenin himself.

Once defeated in the Civil War the imperialists used economic warfare to frustrate the nascent Soviet Union from building a society that was organised for and by the workers and peasants, those who produced all the wealth of the country. Later traitors, and those disaffected within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolshevik), were also recruited in activities that sought to weaken the country in the face of threat of fascism from Germany and Japan.

The documents below seek to tell a small part of that history.

The ‘Hands off Russia’ Movement, direct action against military involvement, Laura Forster and Patricia Wheeler,. nd., n.p., 3 pages.

The Epic of the Black Sea, mutiny against fighting the Russian people following the October Revolution, Andre Marty, Modern Books, London, n.d., 37 pages.

Memoirs of a British Agent, being an account of the author’s early life in many lands and of his official mission to Moscow in 1918, R. H. Bruce Lockhart, Putman, London, 1931, 355 pages.

Armed Intervention Russia 1918-1922, WP and Zelda Coates, Gollanz, London, 1935, 400 pages.

The Great Conspiracy against Russia, Michael Sayers and Albert E Khan, Collets Holdings, London, 1946, 486 pages.

The State Department and the Cold War, DN Pritt, International Publishers, New York, 1948, 96 pages.

Conspiracy against peace, Ralph Parker, Literaturnaya Gazeta Publishers, Moscow, 1949, 248 pages. (There’s a printing error on pages 145-161. They are all there – but not in the correct order.)

The truth about American diplomats, Annabelle Bucar, Literatunaya Gazeta Publishers, Moscow, 1949, 176 pages.

Why have you come to Mourmansk?, leaflet, addressed to ‘English’ soldiers sent to fight against the Russian revolutionaries, signed by N (VI) Lenin and G Tchitcherine (Chicherin), no date but probably mid to late 1918, 1 page.

Armed Intervention in Russia: 1918-1922, W. P. Coates & Zelda K. Coates, Victor Gollancz, London, 1935, 400 pages.

They are betraying the peace, Jean Cathalo, former chief of the Information Department of the French Embassy in Moscow, Literaturnaya Gazeta, Moscow, 1951, 232 pages.

The Western Interventions in the Soviet Union, 1918-1920, D. F. Fleming, reprinted as a pamphlet from New World Review, Fall 1967, 16 pages.

Special issue of Wisconsin Magazine of History, with 3 articles about American military intervention in Archangel, 1918-1919, and the American military landing in Vladivostok and its operation of part of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Well illustrated. Volume 62, No. 3, Spring 1979, 92 pages.

The secret war against Soviet Russia, David Golinkov, Novosti, Moscow, 1981, 105 pages.

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The war on covid replaced by the war on Russia

More on covid pandemic 2020-2?

The war on covid replaced by the war on Russia

If you live in Britain now the covid pandemic is over. The fact that infections are still high, and fluctuating widely in various parts of the country, the fact that there are still deaths (although the exact figures are not publicised as much as a couple of years ago) and there’s still a fear that it will have a serious effect upon certain sections of the population as the fourth jab is now being offered to a not inconsiderable number of people

But pandemic related issues still exist apart from the level of infections and deaths – as can be seen below. And the issue of poverty in the UK (which played its part in the trajectory of the pandemic since March 2020) is still not being adequately addressed – as it will never be under the capitalist system.

At the same time it’s convenient for the Buffoon and his government (and for the governments in many countries in the ‘west’) that there’s now a war going on to distract attention from anything that isn’t directly related to the Ukraine.

The Buffoon will argue that to bring up any discussion about the breaking of national rules in Downing Street on numerous occasions in the last couple of years is unimportant and a distraction from the war ‘where people are dying in their thousands’. But the untrustworthiness of the Buffoon is important when we consider that he is stoking the fires of war by the sending of serious levels of lethal weaponry to keep the Ukrainians fighting – for the benefit of the NATO and the capitalist governments of the ‘west’. For whose benefit is he sending those weapons? His disregard for the well being of the British population indicates that he will have little regard to the lives of Ukrainians and that he is playing (as many of the other ‘world leaders) a geopolitical game where the Ukrainians are merely the disposable pawns. (More on the hypocrisy of the ‘west’.)

And the Buffoons true level of concern for other people can be seen by the way in which the British Government has been one of the biggest supporters of ‘Big Pharma’ and refusing to support the relaxing of Intellectual Property (IP) rights on vaccines so that they can be produced in many more places in the world. This total disregard for the well being of the poorest in the world – whilst at the same time offering (i.e., buying support within a section of the British population) a fourth vaccination to those who don’t really need it – is no surprise and only goes to demonstrate, if it was still needed, that these people consider only themselves ad the class they represent.

The fact that this refusal to act in a manner to vaccinate as many people as possible throughout the world will almost certainly lead to new variants appearing – whether they will be relatively ‘benign’ (as they have been recently with Omicron) or true killer variants will have to be seen.

Finally, another Ukrainian war aspect that might come into play is the fact that the Ukraine had a low level of vaccination prior to the outbreak of hostilities. The trauma caused by the war and the leaving of their homes means that the refugees will be even less able to deal (physically and psychologically) with the virus if they come into contact with it on their journey west. Although Ukrainian refugees are being treated in a different way to that of previous waves in the last ten years or so there will be many who will attempt to get west by routes that are unregulated. Unless there is an effective testing regime in place (which hasn’t really been evident in Britain in the last two years), as well as the adequate provision, distribution and use of vaccines then the ‘wave’ of Ukrainian refugees could be introducing another wave of covid.

Vaccination programme in Britain …

Uptake of children’s covid vaccines is low in the UK – and their slow, confused approval is to blame.

Spring booster offered to elderly and vulnerable in England.

…. and worldwide

Covid vaccines not linked to deaths, major US study finds.

Top economists and Oxfam leader demand truly just covid IP (Intellectual Property) waiver.

Covid vaccines: WTO (World Trade Organisation) compromise over India and South Africa’s proposal is disappointing.

Treatment other than vaccines

Molnupiravir: why are there potential safety issues around this covid antiviral?

The pandemic worldwide

The changing political geography of covid-19 – during the fourth wave of the pandemic, death rates in the most pro-Trump counties were about four times what they were in the most pro-Biden counties.

Global covid-19 death toll ‘may be three times higher than official figures’.

The pandemic’s true death toll.

Covid variants

What are the Covid variants and do vaccines still work?

Deltacron: what scientists know so far about this new hybrid coronavirus.

‘Long covid’

Even mild cases of covid-19 can leave a mark on the brain, such as reductions in gray matter.

Lessons of the pandemic – two years on

‘We suppressed our scientific imagination’: four experts examine the big successes and failures of the covid response so far.

The hard lessons we learned – and didn’t – from two years in Pandemic School

Two years into the pandemic, which of our newly formed habits are here to stay?

Two years on, what has covid-19 taught us? A human rights-centered way forward.

Two years on, complacency still plagues global covid-19 response.

Did the covid lockdowns work? Here’s what we know two years on.


No PCR, no problem: how covid can be diagnosed with X-rays.

Zoe Covid-tracking app loses government funding.

Testing sewage has helped track covid – soon it could reveal much more about the UK’s health.


Why we shouldn’t worry about covid spilling back from animals into human populations.


Risk of severe disease could be in your blood.

Why do some people never get covid?

‘Collateral damage’

How the pandemic has affected periods.

The NHS backlog recovery plan and the outlook for waiting lists.

Covid has intensified gender inequalities. Researchers find women hit harder by negative social and economic impacts of the pandemic than men.

Universities after covid: as lecture theatres reopen, some pandemic teaching methods should live on.

Five things the UK must prioritise in its pandemic recovery plan.

Fraud, corruption and the pandemic

Government’s anti-fraud efforts was like Dad’s Army operation.

Audit Scotland: Watchdog concern over where £5 billion covid funds went.

Covid bailouts helped politically connected businesses more than others.

Will economic inactivity be another unwelcome side-effect of the pandemic?

Poverty in Britain

Housing associations stepping up support for tenants struggling with energy costs.

Not strictly about poverty but any changes that are made to deal with the climate emergency, if they are not well thought out, will have consequences and the poorest in society will bear the brunt of the problems. ‘Shrinking footprints; the impacts of the net zero transition on households and consumption’ is a report produced by the Resolution Foundation.

In February the Institute of Fiscal Studies produce a report in the changes to social care charges, Does the cap fit? Analysing the government’s proposed amendment to the English social care charging system. And the Full Report.

Sweeping changes to student loans to hit tomorrow’s lower-earning graduates.

Living standards for UK households set for greatest fall since 1970s.

Government failing to ensure a decent life for older people as pensioner poverty spirals. Full Report – The State of Ageing – 2022

The Trussel Trust (which operates the biggest number of food banks in the UK) has produced a report on hunger in one of the richest countries in the world. The full report, the executive summary, the technical annex.

Poverty in later life: How people in older age move in and out of poverty, and what should be done to reduce it. Full report by Independent Age.

A more caring society after the pandemic?

Did the pandemic drive a desire for more generous welfare? New research suggests not.

More on covid pandemic 2020-2?

History of the USSR

The defence of Petrograd
The defence of Petrograd

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History of the USSR

The history of the Soviet Union is one of constant struggle. It was born out of violence with the October Revolution in 1917 and then was immediately thrust into a life and death struggle for its existence against the capitalist and imperialist forces that could not countenance the existence of a state outside of their control.

Once the civil war was won the Communists in the Soviet Union then had the struggle to convince the population that a new world was possible whilst at the same time providing them with the lifestyle that was a radical improvement upon what they had lived under during the dark centuries of Czarism, a long period of feudalism and serfdom for the majority whilst the very few lived in luxury.

But even after wining the war against the foreign, imperialist invaders (supporting the moribund forces of reaction) the threat of external attack was never far away and the country always had to be aware of a potential foreign intervention, socially, economically and militarily. That ultimately led to the Hitlerite invasion of the country and the start of the Great Patriotic War – which ended when the Red Army chased the Nazi beast back to its lair.

The items on this page attempt to provide a background to this tumultuous period in history.

Ten Days that Shook the World, by John Reed, a stirring account of the proletarian seizure of power in November 1917, first published in 1919, ebook format 2017, 399 pages.

Six Red Months in Russia, an observers account of Russia before and during the proletarian dictatorship, Louise Bryant, first published 1919, Slavia Publishers, Blooming, 2017, 187 pages.

Dictatorship of the Proletariat, L Kamenev, The Toiler, Cleaveland, 1920, 14 pages.

A Short Course of Economic Science, A Bogdanoff, CPGB, London, 1925, 391 pages.

An Outline of Political Economy, Political Economy and Soviet Economics, I Lapidus and K Ostrovityanov, Martin Lawrence, London, 1929, 546 pages.

Dialectical Materialism, Collective of the Institute of Philosophy of the Communist Academy under the leadership of MB Mitin, np., 1934, 219 pages.

Last days of the Tsar, PM Bykov, International Publishers, New York, 1934, 90 pages.

A History of the Civil War in the U.S.S.R. – Volume 1 – The Prelude to the Great Proletarian Revolution, edited by M. Gorky, S. Kirov, K. Voroshilov, A. Zhdanov, and J. Stalin, FLPH, Moscow, 1936, 573 pages.

World affairs and the USSR, WP and Zelda Coates, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1939, 251 pages.

A History of the Civil War in the U.S.S.R. – Volume 2 – The Great Proletarian Revolution (October-November 1917), edited by M. Gorky, V. Molotov, K. Voroshilov, S. Kirov, A. Zhdanov, and J. Stalin, FLPH, Moscow, 1946, 680 pages.

Our country, Co-operative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow, 1937, 79 pages.

Moscow 1937, Lion Feuchtwanger, Viking Press, New York, 1937, 151 pages.

A Short History of the USSR, Textbook for 3rd and 4th Classes, edited by Professor AV Shestakov, Cooperative Publishing Company of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow, 1938, 257 pages.

First Session of the 1st Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Moscow, January 12-19 1938, Cooperative Publishing Company of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow, 1938, 142 pages.

Second Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, August 10-20 1938, verbatim report, FLPH, Moscow, 1938, 685 pages.

The World Hails 20th Anniversary of the Soviet Union, Cooperative Publishing Company of Foreign Workers in the USSR, Moscow, 1938, 247 pages.

The USSR and the capitalist countries, edited by L Mekhlis, Y Varga and V Karpinsky, FLPH, Moscow, 1938, 94 pages.

The USSR and Finland, Outstanding Facts and Documents, FLPH, Moscow, 1939, 46 pages.

October 1917 in Russia, this vivid account of the actual seizure of power is based on historic documents in the archives of the Revolution, I Mintz, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1940, 84 pages.

Russia, Finland and the Baltic, WP and ZK Coates, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1940, 144 pages.

War on the USSR, University Socialist Club, Cambridge, University Labour Federation, London, 1940, 16 pages.

History of Anarchism in Russia, E Yarolavsky, Lawrence and Wishart, London, nd., early 1940’s?, 127 pages.

Soviet Russia – A Syllabus for study courses, Joan Thompson, Russia Today Society, London, 1941?, 23 pages.

Our ally Russia – the Truth, Jennie Lee, WH Allen, London, 1942, 64 pages.

Russian Cavalcade, EH Carter, Thomas Nelson and Sons, London, 1944, 152 pages.

Political Economy in the Soviet Union, the full text of the Soviet article which provoked wide discussion and speculation in the American press, previously published only in parts, International Publishers, New York, 1944, 48 pages.

From the Russian Revolution to Yalta, a review of Soviet Foreign Policy, Pat Sloan, Russia Today, London, 1945, 28 pages.

History of Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917-1942, Volume 1, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1945, 816 pages.

Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1947, John Quinn, British Soviet Society, London, 1947, 32 pages.

Stalin must have peace, Edgar Snow, Random House, New York, 1947, 176 pages.

Moscow Correspondent, Ralph Parker, Frederick Muller, London, 1949, 304 pages.

A History of the USSR, Andrew Rothstein, first published Penguin Books, London, 1950, reprinted version Red Star Press, New York, 2013, 398 pages.

Mission to Moscow, Joseph E Davies, United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1936-1938, a record of confidential dispatches to the State Department, official and personal correspondence, current diary and journal entries, including notes and comment up to October 1941, Victor Gollanz, London, 1945, 472 pages.

The Soviet Transition from Socialism to Communism, Emile Burns, The Communist Party, London, 1950, 16 pages.

The social and state structure of the USSR, V Karpinsky, FLPH, Moscow, 1950, 239 pages.

Russia is for Peace, DN Pritt, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1951, 106 pages.

The Great October Socialist Revolution and its significance, II Mints and GN Golikov, n.p., Moscow, 1955, 99 pages.

History of Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1943-1950, Volume 2, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1958, 463 pages.

The Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, Progress, Moscow, 1969, 341 pages.

First decrees of Soviet Power, compiled, with introductory notes and explanatory notes by Yuri Akhapkin, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1970, 186 pages.

On the transition to Socialism, Paul M Sweezy and Charles Bettleheim, Monthly Review, New York, 1971, 122 pages.

The USSR and the Middle East, problems of peace and security 1947-1971, Novosti, Moscow, 1972, 295 pages.

The October storm and after, stories and reminiscences, Progress, Moscow, 1974, 354 pages.

The Great October Revolution and the Intelligentsia, S Fedyukin, Progress, Moscow, 1975, 229 pages.

Soviet foreign policy, Volume 1, 1917-1945, Progress, Moscow, 1981, 501 pages.

Soviet foreign policy, Volume 2, 1945-1980, Progress, Moscow, 1981, 728 pages.

Ten Days that Shook the World, John Reed, Progress, Moscow, 1987, 336 pages.

Soldiers in the Proletarian Dictatorship, the Red Army and the Soviet State 1917-1930, Mark Van Hagen, Cornell University, New York, 1993, 397 pages.

Lies concerning the history of the Soviet Union, from Hitler to Hearst, from Conquest to Solzhenitsyn: the history of the millions of people who, allegedly, were incarcerated and died in the labour camps of the Soviet Union and as a result of starvation in Stalin’s time, Mario Sousa, KPML(r), Sweden, 1999, 17 pages.

CIA’s Analysis of the Soviet Union 1947-1991, edited by Gerald K. Haines and Robert E. Leggett, Center for the Study of Intelligence, CIA, Washington, 2001, 323 pages. Some interesting documents, especially those related to the early ‘Cold War’ and the establishment of NATO.

Charles Bettelheim on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Class Struggles in the USSR, First Period, 1917-1923, Charles Bettleheim, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1976, 567 pages.

Class Struggles in the USSR, Second Period, 1923-1930, Charles Bettleheim, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1978, 640 pages.

Class Struggles in the USSR, Third Period, 1930-1941, Part1 – the Dominated, Charles Bettelheim, TR Publications, Madras, 1994, 301 pages.

Class Struggles in the USSR, Third Period, 1930-1941, Part 2 – the Dominators, Charles Bettelheim, TR Publications, Madras, 1996, 345 pages.

Economic Calculation and forms of property, an essay on the transition from capitalism to Socialism, Charles Bettleheim, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1975, 168 pages.

Marxism and Mr Bettelheim, Sunil Sen,, 1999, 13 pages.

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