The Party of Labour of Albania against Russian, Yugoslav and Chinese Revisionism

Enver at 81 Communist Parties Meeting 1961

Enver at 81 Communist Parties Meeting 1961

More on Albania …..

The Party of Labour of Albania against Russian, Yugoslav and Chinese Revisionism

A collection of articles taken from Albanian magazines and periodicals from the 1970s and 1980s.

The theory of ‘Limited Sovereignty’ – A flagrant expression of the imperialist policy of the Soviet Revisionists, Agim Popa, professor, specialist in the field of Marxist philosophy, from Albania Today, 1972, No. 3, 8 pages.

Soviet working class – deprived of the means of production, Veniamin Toçi and Kiço Kapetani, economists, from Albania Today, 1973, No. 4, 7 pages.

Revisionist economic integration and its contradictions, Kiço Kapetani and Veniamin Toçi, journalists, specialists in economic affairs, from Albania Today, 1974, No. 3, 8 pages.

The National Question and Revisionism, Bujar Hoxha, professor, titular of the chair of historic materialism at the State University of Tirana, from Albania Today, 1974, No. 4, 10 pages.

The Kremlin neo-colonialists oppress and plunder the peoples, article from ‘Zeri I Populitt’, from Albania Today, 1975, No. 1, 4 pages.

The Soviet economy – a completely and definitely capitalist economy, Aristotel Pano, economist, lecturer at the Tirana University, from Albania Today, 1975, No. 4, 8 pages.

The Revisionist Parties – typically bourgeois, counter-revolutionary parties, Fiqret Shehu, Member of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, Director of the ‘V. I. Lenin’ Party School. Co-paper read at the scientific sessions on Class Struggle in the Party, organized by the Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the CC of the PLA, from Albania Today, 1977, No. 5, 15 pages.

‘Eurocommunism’ or Undisguised Revisionism, from Zëri i Popullit, organ of the CC of the PLA, dated December 4, 1977, from Albania Today, 1978, No. 1, 9 pages.

Revisionist ‘theories’ of restored capitalism, Hekuran Mara – Professor, member of the Academy of Sciences of the PSR of Albania, from Albania Today, 1978, No. 3, 10 pages.

The organizational degeneration of the Revisionist Parties and its consequences, Petro Ciruna and Pandi Tase, Pedagogues at the ‘V.I. Lenin’ Party School, from Albania Today, 1978, No. 3, 4 pages.

The capitalist character of the relations of production in the Soviet Union, Aristotel Pano and Kiço Kapetani, economists, from Albania Today, 1978, No. 5, 10 pages.

Broadening and deepening of the struggle against all the currents of Modern Revisionism – an historical necessity, Fiqret Shehu – Member of the CC of the PLA and Directress of the ‘V. I. Lenin’ High Party School, from Albania Today, 1978, No. 6, 18 pages.

Soviet Revisionism – The most complete theory of Modern Revisionism, Omer Hashorva – Chief of the Department of Philosophy at the ‘V. I. Lenin’ High Party School, from Albania Today, 1979, No. 3, 3 pages.

The processes of capitalist development of the Chinese economy, Tomor Cerova, Docent, Professor at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Tirana, from Albania Today, 1980, No. 2, 12 pages.

COMECON – an instrument of Soviet Social-imperialism for the exploitation and domination of the member countries, Gene Xhuvani and Lulezim Hana, ND (but after 1980), 4 pages.

The capitalist degeneration of the collective farms in the Soviet Union today, Nexhmedin Luari, Senior Scientific Worker, ND (but after 1980), 3 pages.

Complete integration of the Soviet economy into the world capitalist economy, Fatos Nano, from Soviet Revisionism and the struggle of the PLA to unmask it, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1981, 4 pages.

Some characteristics of state monopoly capitalism in the Soviet Union, Priamo Bollano, Senior Scientific Worker, from Soviet Revisionism and the struggle of the PLA to unmask it, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1981, 4 pages.

The mechanism of the Soviet economic machine, Hekuran Mara, from Soviet Revisionism and the struggle of the PLA to unmask it, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1981, 3 pages.

The present socio-economic order in the Soviet Union – a capitalist order, Omer Hashorva, Candidate of Sciences, from Soviet Revisionism and the struggle of the PLA to unmask it, 8 Nëntori Publishing House, Tirana, 1981, 9 pages.

On the mechanism of the extraction and appropriation of Surplus Value in the Soviet Society, Fatos Nano, Candidate of Economic Sciences, taken from No. 3 of the Albanian edition of the magazine Socio-Political Studies, ND (but after 1981), 13 pages.

The Marxist-Leninist theoretical thinking of the PLA and Comrade Enver Hoxha on the Socialist Development and Transformation of Agriculture, Nexhmedin Dumani and Zydi Pepa, economists, from Albania Today, 1984, No. 5, 15 pages.

Some manifestations of national oppression in the Soviet Union today, Natasha Iliriani, Lecturer, from Socio-Political Studies, No. 4, 1987, 15 pages.

The Titoite Revisionists’ anti-Marxist views on the nation – an expression of their idealist reactionary world outlook, Xhafer Dobrushi, Candidate of Sciences, Socio-Political Studies No. 4, 1987, 14 pages.

More on Albania …..

Israeli settlers abduct, brutally assault 15-year-old Palestinian boy

Tareq at home

Tareq at home

More on Palestine

Israeli settlers abduct, brutally assault 15-year-old Palestinian boy

[This article was first published on the Defense for Children International – Palestine website on 28th August 2021.]

Ramallah, August 27, 2021 – Israeli settlers abducted and physically assaulted a 15-year-old Palestinian boy in the northern West Bank last week.

Israeli settlers abducted and assaulted 15-year-old Tareq Z. on August 17 near Homesh, an evacuated Israeli settlement located south of the occupied West Bank city of Jenin. The settlers pursued and struck Tareq with their car, tied him to the vehicle’s hood, hung him by his arms from a tree, and beat him until he lost consciousness, according to information collected by Defense for Children International – Palestine. He awoke inside an Israeli military vehicle and was subsequently taken by a Palestinian ambulance to the Jenin governmental hospital where he was treated for his injuries including a fractured knee, according to documentation collected by DCIP.

Tareq and five friends set off around 9 a.m. to picnic in an area of their village, Silat Ad-Dhaher, adjacent to Homesh, a former Israeli settlement that was evacuated in 2005. Shortly after the boys’ arrival, they heard voices speaking in Hebrew and saw two Israeli settlers in civilian clothes walking nearby. One of the settlers was armed with a handgun, according to information gathered by DCIP. Frightened, the boys fled. Tareq’s friends managed to escape through nearby fields, but the settlers chased Tareq in their car down an agricultural road and abducted and physically assaulted him.

‘We have documented a sharp increase in the number of Israeli settler attacks on Palestinian children this year, and attacks are increasingly severe,’ said Ayed Abu Eqtaish, accountability program director at DCIP. ‘Israeli authorities persistently fail to investigate settler violence against Palestinian children, and that lack of accountability has undoubtedly led to Israeli settlers becoming more brazen and brutal in their attacks.’

Tareq Z., 15, recounts his abduction and assault at the hands of Israeli settlers in Homesh on August 17, 2021. Video

The settlers chased Tareq in their car as he ran down an agricultural road. After striking him with their car, they beat him with wooden sticks as he lay on the ground, according to information gathered by DCIP. After that, two other settlers brought ropes from inside the car, tied Tareq’s hands and feet, carried him and sat him on the hood of their car. The settlers tied the ropes with long metal chains, and they got into the car, holding the metal chains from the windows, and drove to the settlement ruins with Tareq pinned to the hood. When the driver hit the brakes, those holding onto the metal chains let go of them and Tareq fell to the ground.

‘I looked around and saw around 70 settlers. Once they saw me, one of them hit me more than once with a metal bar on my back and legs,’ Tareq recounted to a DCIP field researcher. ‘Then another settler came towards me and pepper sprayed me, while I was screaming and hurting. I was really scared.’

The settlers blindfolded Tareq and tied his hands behind his back with a plastic cord. He remained immobilized as the settlers hit, kicked, slapped and spat on him for around 90 minutes, according to information collected by DCIP. The settlers also hung Tareq from a tree with his feet unable to reach the ground. One of the settlers tased Tareq with an electrified baton, scratched his foot with a sharp object, and burned the sole of his right foot, according to information collected by DCIP.

Burnt by Israeli Settlers

Burnt by Israeli Settlers

When he was released from the tree, a settler struck Tareq in the head with a wooden stick and threw him onto a cactus. Tareq lost consciousness and later awoke inside an Israeli military jeep.

After learning about Tareq’s abduction from his friends, Tareq’s family contacted Palestinian authorities. They contacted Israeli authorities that deployed Israeli forces to the area, eventually finding Tareq. The Israeli soldiers brought Tareq to the entrance of an Israeli settlement.

After an hour, Tareq was met by his uncle and a Palestinian ambulance that transported him to the Jenin governmental hospital where he was examined and x-rayed, according to information collected by DCIP.

Tareq sustained bruises and scratches all over his body, in addition to a knee fracture. The sole of his left foot was also wounded and bleeding. He was discharged from the hospital the following day.

Although Homesh was officially evacuated in 2005, a group called Homesh First established a Jewish seminary at the site soon after the evacuation, according to Haaretz. The Israeli settlers there are known to be extremely violent, Haaretz reported.

Israeli settlers commit violence against Palestinians and their property daily throughout the occupied West Bank. Between January 1 and August 23, 2021, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Aid (OCHA) documented 321 Israeli settler attacks against Palestinian civilians and their property. In May alone, DCIP documented four Israeli settler attacks in which Palestinian children were harmed, including two children who were shot with live ammunition by Israeli settlers.

Israel has an obligation as the ‘Occupying Power’ under international humanitarian law to protect the Palestinian population living under Israeli military occupation. However, DCIP documentation shows that Israeli forces frequently fail to intervene to stop or prevent Israeli settler attacks. Often, Israeli forces protect the Israeli settlers as they carry out attacks and acts of violence against Palestinians and their property.

While they are civilians, Israeli settlers are issued firearms by the Israeli government and many subscribe to ultra-nationalistic beliefs that manifest in extreme violence towards Palestinians, including children. Israeli settlers who attack Palestinians are motivated by the drive to dispossess Palestinians of their land, according to Israeli human rights group Yesh Din.

Despite living in the same territory, Palestinians in the occupied West Bank are subject to Israeli military law, while Israeli settlers living illegally in permanent, Jewish-only communities built on Palestinian land are subject to the Israeli civilian legal system. Since Israeli forces occupied the West Bank in 1967, Israeli authorities have established more than 200 Jewish-only settlements that house around 700,000 Israeli citizens, according to the Times of Israel.

Impunity is rampant for Israeli settlers who attack Palestinians. According to Israeli human rights group Yesh Din, 91 percent of investigations into ideological crimes against Palestinians are closed with no indictments filed.

Israeli authorities consistently fail to investigate complaints filed against settlers. According to Yesh Din, between 2005-2019, 82 percent of investigative files on ideological crimes against Palestinians were closed due to police failures.

It is rare for charges to be filed and even rarer for Israeli settlers to be convicted for violence or offenses against Palestinians. One recent exception was when an Israeli court found Israeli settler Amiram Ben-Uleil, 25, guilty of the racially motivated murder of a Palestinian toddler and his parents. In the early hours of July 31, 2015, Ben-Uleil and another masked man threw firebombs into the home of 18-month old Ali Dawabsheh, four-year-old Ahmad, and their parents, Saad and Riham, in the northern occupied West Bank village of Duma. Only Ahmad, who sustained burns to over 60 percent of his body, survived.

Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits Israel, the Occupying Power, from transferring its civilians to the Occupied Palestinian Territory. It also prohibits Israel from transferring Palestinians, the protected population, unless necessary for the protected population’s security or out of military necessity. Violations of Article 49 are grave violations of international humanitarian law and amount to war crimes.

The United Nations Security Council reaffirmed the prohibition on establishing settlements in Security Council Resolutions 446, 452, 465, and most recently, 2334. Despite this prohibition, Israel began establishing Jewish-only settlements for Israeli civilians shortly after it occupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip in 1967. Israeli authorities frequently displace Palestinian communities and appropriate Palestinian lands to establish these Jewish-only settlements.

More on Palestine

The great game of smashing countries

Women at university in Afghanistan - 1970s
Women at university in Afghanistan – 1970s

The great game of smashing countries

by John Pilger

[The present chaotic situation in Afghanistan just goes to demonstrate two crucial aspects of modern society; the hypocrisy and outright lies spouted by western politicians and their meek and complaint (in the main) media and the remarkably short memories of the population in general who suck up such baseless ‘information’ in a totally uncritical manner. When it comes to the population this is probably due to the fact that the majority of people have no concept of history. What happens today is dependent upon what happened yesterday – not last year or even decades ago.

Due to this short memory span the politicians (of all colours) are able to use/abuse the ignorance and gullibility of the population in an attempt to maintain the high moral ground. ‘Forgetting’ that they were the ones who created the problem in the first place, i.e., fundamentalist head-bangers, they pose as those who had created a ‘modern’ society in Afghanistan rather than the ones that had spend 20 years and an unimaginable amount of money to dominate the country – in the process destroying its society and people – even in the last couple of days in the country murdering children in a ‘targetted’ drone attack.

In Britain the enthusiasm that Labour politicians jump into the debate just goes to show how redundant social-democracy has always been in the country. With such imperialist ambitions and thinking they will never be able to offer a real alternative to the blatant capitalist suck-holing of the present ruling Tories. Instead of hanging their heads in shame – as they were the party/government that took Britain into the latest Afghan debacle – they still maintain that the decision was correct in the first place – and will, no doubt, take the same approach when the next chapter in the efforts to maintain US hegemony is opened.

The peoples of those imperialist countries who continually (even though they have ‘lost’ those wars in which they have had direct involvement) support their ruling class in such ‘adventures’ should look to the words of VI Lenin, if they have any hope for their own future;

‘Let us consider the position of an oppressor nation. Can a nation be free if it oppresses other nations? It cannot.’ (The right of nations to self-determination, p23.)

Below is an article by a anti-war, Australian journalist. which sets out the the case against current hypocrisy.]

This version was first published on the CounterPunch website on 25th August 2021.

The great game of smashing countries

As a tsunami of crocodile tears engulfs Western politicians, history is suppressed. More than a generation ago, Afghanistan won its freedom, which the United States, Britain and their ‘allies’ destroyed.

In 1978, a liberation movement led by the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew the dictatorship of Mohammad Dawd, the cousin of King Zahir Shar. It was an immensely popular revolution that took the British and Americans by surprise.

Foreign journalists in Kabul, reported the New York Times, were surprised to find that ‘nearly every Afghan they interviewed said [they were] delighted with the coup’. The Wall Street Journal reported that ‘150,000 persons … marched to honour the new flag …the participants appeared genuinely enthusiastic.’

The Washington Post reported that ‘Afghan loyalty to the government can scarcely be questioned’. Secular, modernist and, to a considerable degree, socialist, the government declared a programme of visionary reforms that included equal rights for women and minorities. Political prisoners were freed and police files publicly burned.

Under the monarchy, life expectancy was thirty-five; one in three children died in infancy. Ninety per cent of the population was illiterate. The new government introduced free medical care. A mass literacy campaign was launched.

For women, the gains had no precedent; by the late 1980s, half the university students were women, and women made up 40 per cent of Afghanistan’s doctors, 70 per cent of its teachers and 30 per cent of its civil servants.

So radical were the changes that they remain vivid in the memories of those who benefited. Saira Noorani, a female surgeon who fled Afghanistan in 2001, recalled:

Every girl could go to high school and university. We could go where we wanted and wear what we liked … We used to go to cafes and the cinema to see the latest Indian films on a Friday … it all started to go wrong when the mujahedin started winning … these were the people the West supported.

For the United States, the problem with the PDPA government was that it was supported by the Soviet Union. Yet it was never the ‘puppet’ derided in the West, neither was the coup against the monarchy ‘Soviet backed’, as the American and British press claimed at the time.

President Jimmy Carter’s Secretary of State, Cyrus Vance, later wrote in his memoirs: ‘We had no evidence of any Soviet complicity in the coup.’

In the same administration was Zbigniew Brzezinski, Carter’s National Security Adviser, a Polish émigré and fanatical anti-communist and moral extremist whose enduring influence on American presidents expired only with his death in 2017.

On 3 July 1979, unknown to the American people and Congress, Carter authorised a $500 million ‘covert action’ programme to overthrow Afghanistan’s first secular, progressive government. This was code-named by the CIA Operation Cyclone.

The $500 million bought, bribed and armed a group of tribal and religious zealots known as the mujahedin. In his semi-official history, Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward wrote that the CIA spent $70 million on bribes alone. He describes a meeting between a CIA agent known as ‘Gary’ and a warlord called Amniat-Melli:

Gary placed a bundle of cash on the table: $500,000 in one-foot stacks of $100 bills. He believed it would be more impressive than the usual $200,000, the best way to say we’re here, we’re serious, here’s money, we know you need it … Gary would soon ask CIA headquarters for and receive $10 million in cash.

Recruited from all over the Muslim world, America’s secret army was trained in camps in Pakistan run by Pakistani intelligence, the CIA and Britain’s MI6. Others were recruited at an Islamic College in Brooklyn, New York – within sight of the doomed Twin Towers. One of the recruits was a Saudi engineer called Osama bin Laden.

The aim was to spread Islamic fundamentalism in Central Asia and destabilise and eventually destroy the Soviet Union.

In August, 1979, the US Embassy in Kabul reported that ‘the United States’ larger interests … would be served by the demise of the PDPA government, despite whatever setbacks this might mean for future social and economic reforms in Afghanistan.’

Read again the words above I have italicised. It is not often that such cynical intent is spelt out as clearly. The US was saying that a genuinely progressive Afghan government and the rights of Afghan women could go to hell.

Six months later, the Soviets made their fatal move into Afghanistan in response to the American-created jihadist threat on their doorstep. Armed with CIA-supplied Stinger missiles and celebrated as ‘freedom fighters’ by Margaret Thatcher, the mujahedin eventually drove the Red Army out of Afghanistan.

Calling themselves the Northern Alliance, the mujahedin were dominated by war lords who controlled the heroin trade and terrorised rural women. The Taliban were an ultra-puritanical faction, whose mullahs wore black and punished banditry, rape and murder but banished women from public life.

In the 1980s, I made contact with the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, known as RAWA, which had tried to alert the world to the suffering of Afghan women. During the Taliban time they concealed cameras beneath their burqas to film evidence of atrocities, and did the same to expose the brutality of the Western-backed mujahedin. ‘Marina’ of RAWA told me, ‘We took the videotape to all the main media groups, but they didn’t want to know ….’

In1996, the enlightened PDPA government was overrun. The Prime Minister, Mohammad Najibullah, had gone to the United Nations to appeal to for help. On his return, he was hanged from a street light.

‘I confess that [countries] are pieces on a chessboard,’ said Lord Curzon in 1898, ‘upon which is being played out a great game for the domination of the world.’

The Viceroy of India was referring in particular to Afghanistan. A century later, Prime Minister Tony Blair used slightly different words.

‘This is a moment to seize,’ he said following 9/11. ‘The Kaleidoscope has been shaken. The pieces are in flux. Soon they will settle again. Before they do, let us re-order this world around us.’

On Afghanistan, he added this: ‘We will not walk away [but ensure] some way out of the poverty that is your miserable existence.’

Blair echoed his mentor, President George W. Bush, who spoke to the victims of his bombs from the Oval Office: ‘The oppressed people of Afghanistan will know the generosity of America. As we strike military targets, we will also drop food, medicine and supplies to the starving and suffering … ‘

Almost every word was false. Their declarations of concern were cruel illusions for an imperial savagery ‘we’ in the West rarely recognise as such.

In 2001, Afghanistan was stricken and depended on emergency relief convoys from Pakistan. As the journalist Jonathan Steele reported, the invasion indirectly caused the deaths of some 20,000 people as supplies to drought victims stopped and people fled their homes.

Eighteen months later, I found unexploded American cluster bombs in the rubble of Kabul which were often mistaken for yellow relief packages dropped from the air. They blew the limbs off foraging, hungry children.

In the village of Bibi Maru, I watched a woman called Orifa kneel at the graves of her husband, Gul Ahmed, a carpet weaver, and seven other members of her family, including six children, and two children who were killed next door.

An American F-16 aircraft had come out of a clear blue sky and dropped a Mk82 500-pound bomb on Orifa’s mud, stone and straw house. Orifa was away at the time. When she returned, she gathered the body parts.

Months later, a group of Americans came from Kabul and gave her an envelope with fifteen notes: a total of 15 dollars. ‘Two dollars for each of my family killed,’ she said.

The invasion of Afghanistan was a fraud. In the wake of 9/11, the Taliban sought to distant themselves from Osama bin Laden. They were, in many respects, an American client with which the administration of Bill Clinton had done a series of secret deals to allow the building of a $3 billion natural gas pipeline by a US oil company consortium.

In high secrecy, Taliban leaders had been invited to the US and entertained by the CEO of the Unocal company in his Texas mansion and by the CIA at its headquarters in Virginia. One of the deal-makers was Dick Cheney, later George W. Bush’s Vice-President.

In 2010, I was in Washington and arranged to interview the mastermind of Afghanistan’s modern era of suffering, Zbigniew Brzezinski. I quoted to him his autobiography in which he admitted that his grand scheme for drawing the Soviets into Afghanistan had created ‘a few stirred up Muslims’.

‘Do you have any regrets?’ I asked.

‘Regrets! Regrets! What regrets?’

When we watch the current scenes of panic at Kabul airport, and listen to journalists and generals in distant TV studios bewailing the withdrawal of ‘our protection’, isn’t it time to heed the truth of the past so that all this suffering never happens again?

John Pilger can be reached through his website: www.johnpilger.com

[To accompany this article we provide a link to an RT broadcast of 24th August 2021 which looks at the history of Wikileaks and Julian Assange in the ‘whistle-blowing’ of the activities of the US (and NATO – including British) forces murder of the Afghani people when they entered the country 20 years ago, supposedly to ‘save’ them from the Taliban. War under capitalism and imperialism exists merely to make money for the military-industrial complex and any arguments about the ‘morality’ of such incursions are merely there to con both the working class who are the ‘boots on the ground’ and who, in their respective countries, allow their Governments to shovel vast amounts of public funds into the bank accounts of the major transnational players.

Here are a couple of interesting links that address the logistics, i.e., sheer criminal waste of money, involved in the Afghanistan ‘adventure’. Afghanistan: Black Hawks and Humvees – military kit now with the Taliban gives an idea of the sheer scale of the war materiel that the American (and, to a lesser extent those of the other interventionist nations) people are paying for to keep the transnational companies shareholders in the lap of luxury to which they have become accustomed. In the War on Terror, the only winner is the arms trade further develops that point

Continuing to bang the RT drum the most recent edition of Going Underground contained interviews which looked at the machinations of the NATO countries, and its hangers-on, to re-write the history of US involvement in Afghanistan and the debacle of its end.

Although a bit of an annoying rant this piece from RT, Afghanistan was a giant money laundering scheme also makes some pertinent points.]