VI Lenin – Collected Works – Volumes 1 – 5

VI Lenin

VI Lenin

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The Great ‘Marxist-Leninist’ Theoreticians

VI Lenin – Collected Works – Volumes 1 – 5

On this, and subsequent pages, you will find the Collected Works of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. The intention is, eventually, to provide full contents for each volume posted. As it stands at the moment that is only available for the first few volumes – contents for later volumes will appear gradually over a period of time.

However all of the 45 volumes of Lenin’s Collected Works will be available in pdf format to download from the start. There are two further volumes, an Index of Works and Names and another a Subject Index. Those volumes will be made available as soon as practicable.

These volumes were made available by the comrades at From Marx to Mao, to whom we give our thanks. They have other material on their website – some of which is available here but others (especially individual pamphlets of the great Marxist-Leninists) are not.

VI Lenin Collected Works: Volumes 6 – 10; Volumes 11 – 15; Volumes 16 – 45; Indexes

Already on this site you can find the Works of JV Stalin, Mao Tse-tung and Enver Hoxha.

Volume One – 1893-1894

VI Lenin 1890-91

VI Lenin 1890-91

Preface to Volume One 9


New Economic Developments in Peasant Life (On V. Y. Postnikov’s Peasant Farming in South Russia) 11

  • I. 13
  • II. 17
  • III. 32
  • IV. 43
  • V. 69

On the so-called Market Question 75

  • I. 79
  • II. 79
  • III. 84
  • IV. 89
  • V. 93
  • VI. 99
  • VII. 107
  • VIII. 122


What the ‘Friends of the People’ are and how they fight the Social Democrats. (A Reply to Articles in Russkeye Bogatsivo Opposing the Marxists) 129

  • Part I 131
  • Publishers Note 201
  • Note to the Present Edition 202
  • Part III 203
  • Appendix I 301
  • Appendix II 308
  • Appendix III 326

The economic content of Narodism and the criticism of it in Mr Struve’s book. (The Reflection of Marxism in bourgeois literature.) P Struve. Critical Remarks on the Subject of Russia’s Economic Development. St. Petersburg,1894. 333

Chapter 1

A Line-by-Line Commentary on a Narodnik Profession de foi     340

Chapter II

A Criticism of Narodnik Sociology 395

Chapter III The Presentation of Economic Problems by the Narodniks and by Mr. Struve 424

Chapter IV How Mr. Struve Explains Some Features of Russia s Post-Reform Economy 451

  • I. 453
  • II. 480
  • III. 486
  • IV. 489
  • V. 493
  • VI. 500

Notes 509

The Life and Work of V. I. Lenin. Outstanding Dates 537

VI Lenin - Collected Works - 01

VI Lenin – Collected Works – 01








Volume Two – 1895-1897

VI Lenin 1897

VI Lenin 1897

Preface 13


Frederick Engels 15

Explanation of the law on fines imposed on factory workers 29

  • I. What are fines? 33
  • II. How were fines imposed formerly and what gave rise to the new legislation on fines? 35
  • III. On what grounds may the factory owner impose fines? 40
  • IV. How big may fines be? 47
  • V. What. is the procedure for imposing fines? 50
  • VI. What, according to law, should the fines be spent on? 55
  • VII. Do the fines laws apply to all workers? 66
  • VIII. Conclusion 69

Gymnasium farms and corrective gymnasia (Russkoye Bogatstvo) 73

To the working men and women of the Thornton factory 81

What are our ministers thinking about? 87

Draft and explanation of a programme for the Social-democratic Party 93

Draft Programme 95

Explanation of the Programme 98


To the Tsarist Government 122


A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism (Sismondi and Our Native Sismondists) 129

Chapter I

The Economic Theories of Romanticism 134

  • I. Does the Home Market Shrink Because of the Ruination of the Small Producers? 135
  • II. Sismondi’ s Views on National Revenue and Capital 140
  • III. Sismondi’ s Conclusions from the Fallacious Theory of Two Parts of the Annual Product in Capitalist Society 146
  • IV Wherein Lies the Error of Adam Smith’s and Sismondi’ s Theories of National Revenue? 150
  • V. Accumulation in Capitalist Society 154
  • VI. The Foreign Market as the “Way out of the Difficulty” of Realising Surplus-Value 161
  • VII. Crisis 166
  • VIII. Capitalist Rent and Capitalist Overpopulation 174
  • IX. Machines in Capitalist Society 184
  • X. Protection 192
  • XI. Sismondi’s Place in the History of Political Economy 199

Postscript 207

Chapter 11 The Character of the Romanticists’ Criticism of Capitalism 208

  • I. The Sentimental Criticism of Capitalism 209
  • II. The Petty-Bourgeois Character of Romanticism 220
  • III. The Problem of the Growth of the Industrial Population at the Expense of the Agricultural Population 225
  • IV. Practical Proposals of Romanticism 232
  • V. The Reactionary Character of Romanticism 239
  • VI. Corn Tariffs in England as Appraised by Romanticism and by Scientific Theory 252

The new Factory Law 267

  • I. Why Was the New Factory Law Passed? 271
  • II. What Should Be Considered Working Time? 274
  • III. To What Extent Does the New Law Reduce Working Hours? 276
  • IV. What Does the Law Consider ‘Night-Time’ for the Workers? 278
  • V. How Does the Ministry of Finance Try to Prove That to Restrict Overtime Would Be ‘Unfair’ to the Worker? 281
  • VI. What Powers Does the New Law Grant the Ministers? 286
  • VII. How Our ‘Christian’ Government Curtails the Workers’ Holidays 290
  • VIII. How is the Observance of the New Law Guaranteed? 295
  • IX. Will the New Law Improve the Workers’ Condition? 298
  • X. What Is the Significance of the New Law? 302


  • I. 304
  • II. 305
  • III. 307
  • IV. 307
  • V. 310
  • VI. 311
  • VII. 314

About a Certain Newspaper Article 316

The Tasks of the Russian Social-democrats 323

To the Workers and Socialists of St. Petersburg from the League of Struggle 348

Article One 357

  • I. General Data 358
  • II. The ‘Handicraftsman’ and Wage-Labour 369
  • III. ‘Communal-Labour Continuity’ 381

Article Two 387

  • IV. The Agriculture of ‘Handicraftsmen’ 387
  • V. Large and Small Establishments – The incomes of the Handicraftsmen 403

Article Three 422

  • VI. What ls a Buyer-Up? 422
  • VII. ‘Gratifying Features’ of Handicraft Industry 439
  • VIII. The Narodnik Programme of Industrial Policy 445

Gems of Narodnik Project-mongering (S .N. Yuzhakov, Educational Problems, Journalistic Essays, Secondary-School Reform. Systems and Aims of Higher Education. Gymnasium Textbooks. The Problem of Universal Education.Women and Education, St. Petersburg, 1897,pp. VIII 283. Price 1 ruble 50 kopeks) 459

  • I. 461
  • II. 462
  • III. 469
  • IV. 472
  • V. 476
  • VI. 480
  • VII. 486

The heritage we renounce 491

  • I. One Representative of the ‘Heritage’ 494
  • II. Narodism’s Addition to the ‘Heritage’ 506
  • III. Has the ‘Heritage’ Gained from Association with Narodism? 513
  • IV. The ‘Enlighteners,’ the Narodniks, and the ‘Disciples’ 525
  • V. Mr. Mikhailovsky on the ‘Disciples” Renunciation of the Heritage 527

Notes 535

The Life and Work of V. I. Lenin. Outstanding Dates 567

VI Lenin - Collected Works - 02

VI Lenin – Collected Works – 02








Volume Three – The Development of Capitalism in Russia

VI Lenin 1897

VI Lenin 1897

The Development of Capitalism in Russia. The Process of the Formation of a Home Market for Large-Scale Industry 21-607

Preface to the First Edition 25

Preface to the Second Edition 31

Chapter I The Theoretical Mistakes of the Narodnik Economists 37

  • I. The Social Division of Labour 37

The increase in the number of industries 37-38 The creation of a home market as a result of the social division of labour 38 The manifestation of this process in agriculture 38-39 The views of the Narodnik economists 39

  • II. The Growth of the Industrial population at the Expense of the Agricultural 40

The necessary connection between this phenomenon and the very nature or commodity and capitalist economy 40-41

  • III. The Ruin of the Small Producers 41

The mistaken view or the Narodniks 41 The view of the author or Capital on this subject 42

  • IV. The Narodnik Theory of the Impossibility of Realising Surplus-Value 43

The substance ot the theory or Messrs. V. V. and N. on its erroneous character 43-45 The ‘foreign market’ is wrongly dragged into the problem or realisation 46 The superficial estimation or the contradictions or capitalism by the writers mentioned 47

  • V. The Views of Adam Smith on the Production and Circulation of the Aggregate Social Product in Capitalist Society and Marx’s Criticism of These Views 47

Adam Smith’s omission or constant capital 47-49 The influence or this error on the theory or the national revenue 49-50

  • VI. Marx’s Theory of Realisation 51

The basic premises of Marx’s theory 55-52 The realisation or the product under simple reproduction 52-53 The main conclusion from Marx’s theory of realisation 54-55 The significance of productive consumption 55-56 The contradiction between the urge towards the unlimited growth or production and the limited character of consumption 56-58.

  • VII. The Theory of the National Income 58

Proudhon 59-60, Rodbertus 60-62, contemporary economists 62, Marx 63-64

  • VIII. Why Does the Capitalist Nation Need a Foreign Market? 64

The causes of the need for a foreign market 64-66 The foreign market and the progressive character or capitalism 66-67

  • IX. Conclusions from Chapter I 67

Resume of the propositions examined above 67-68 The essence of the problem or the home market 69

Chapter II. The Differentiation of the Peasantry 70

  • I. Zemstvo Statistics for Novorossia 70

Economic groups of the peasantry 70-71 Commercial agriculture and the purchase and sale of labour-power 72 The top group; the concentration of land 72-73, and of animals and implements 73, the higher productivity of labour 74-75 Mr. V. V.’s argument on the decline in horse-ownership 75 The hiring of farm workers and Mr. V. V.’s argument on this phenomenon 76-77 The bottom group or the peasantry; the leasing of land 77-78 The middle group, its instability 79-80 Messrs. V. V. and Karyshev on peasant rentings 80-84 The attitude or the Narodniks to Mr. Postnikov’s researches 84-85

  • II. Zemstvo Statistics for Samara Gubernia 85

Data concerning the farms of the different peasant groups in Novouzensk Uyezd 85-87 The land held and the land in use by the different groups 87-88 Mr. Karyshev on land renting and grain prices 88-90 Wage-labour; the creation of a home market by the differentiation of the peasantry 90-92 The rural proletariat in Samara Gubernia 92-93

  • III. Zemstvo Statistics for Saratov Gubernia 93

Data concerning the farms of the different groups 93-94 The hiring or farm workers 94-95 ”Industries’ in Zemstvo statistics 95-96 Rentings 96-97 The arguments on land renting advanced by Messrs. Karyshev, N.-on, and Maress 97-101 A comparison of Kamyshin and other uyezds 101-102 The significance or the classification of peasant households 102-105

  • IV. Zemstvo Statistics for Perm Gubernia 106

Data concerning the farms or the different groups 106-107 The hiring or farm workers and day labourers and its significance 108-110 The manuring of the soil 110 Improved implements 110-111 Commercial and Industrial establishments 111-112

  • V. Zemstvo Statistics for Orel Gubernia 112

Data concerning the farms or the different groups 112-113 Incompleteness or the picture or differentiation from the data for Orel Gubernla 113-115

  • VI. Zemstvo Statistics for Voronezh Gubernia 115

Methods or classification in Voronezh abstracts 115-116 Data for Zadonak Uyezd 116-117 Industries 117-118.

  • VII. Zemstvo Statistics for Nizhni-Novgorod Gubernia 119

Data concerning groups or farms for three uyezds 119-122

  • VIII. Review of Zemstvo Statistics for Other Gubernias 122

Novgorod Gubernia, Demyansk Uyezd 122-123 Chernigov Gubernia, Kozeleta Uyezd 123 Yenisci Gubernia 124 Poltava Gubernia, three uyezds 125 Kaluga Gubernia 126 Tver Gubernia 126-127

  • IX. Summary or the Above Zemstvo Statistics on the Differentiation of the Peasantry 127

Methods of making the summary 127-129 Combined table and chart 130-133 and 140-141 Examination of the various columns of the chart 134-139 Comparison between different localities as to degree of differentiation 140-141

  • X. Summary of Zemstvo Statistics and Army-Horse Census Returns 141

Zemstvo statistics tor 112 uyezds or 21 gubernias 141-143 Army-horse census returns for 49 gubernias of European Russia 143-144 Significance of these data 144-145

  • XI. A Comparison of the Army-Horse Censuses of 1888-1891 and 1896-1900 146

Data for 48 gubernias of European Russia 146-147 Statistical exercises or Messrs Vikhlyayev and Chernenkov 147-148

  • XII. Zemstvo Statistics on Peasant Budgets 148

Character of data and methods or treating them 148-150 (A). General results or the budgets 150-157 Magnitude of expenditures and incomes 150 Components of expenditures 151 Components or incomes 152-153 Cash portions or the budgets 154-155 The significance of taxes 156-157 (B). A characterisation of peasant farming 157-162 General data about the farms 157- 158 Property and Implements 159 Farm expenditure 160-161 Income from agriculture 161 An apparent exception 161-162 (C). A characterisation of the standard of living 162-172 Expenditure on food in kind 162- 163 Expenditure on food in cash 163-164 Remaining expenditures on personal consumption 165 Cash expenditure on personal and productive consumption 165-166 Mr. N.-on about the top ‘stratum’ of the peasantry 166-167 A comparison between the standard or living of rural workers and peasants 167-169 Methods or Mr. Shcherbina 170-172

  • XIII. Conclusions from Chapter II 172

The significance or commodity economy 172 1) Capitalist contradictions within the village community 172- 173 2) ‘Depeasantising’173-174 3) Characterisation or this process in Capital 173-176 4) The peasant bourgeoisie 176-177 5) The rural proletariat. The European type or allotment-holding rural worker 177-180 6) The middle peasantry 181 7) The formation of a home market for capitalism 181 8) Increasing differentiation; significance or migration 182-183 9) Merchant’s and usurer’s capital. The presentation of the problem in theory. The connection between these forms or capital and industrial capital 185-186 10) Labour-service and its influence on the differentiation of the peasantry 186-187

Chapter III. The Landowners’ Transition from Corvee to Capitalist Economy 191

  • I. The Main Features of Corvee Economy 191

The essence of the serf system of economy and the conditions for it 191-193

  • II. The Combination of the Corvee and the Capitalist Systems of Economy 193

The remnants of the old system after the Reform 193-194 The labour-service and the capitalist systems 194-195 Their relative incidence 195-197 The transition from the labour-service system to the capitalist 197-198

  • III. Description of the Labour-Service System 198

Types or labour-service 198-199 Rentings in kind and their significance 199-200 The payment of labour under labour-service 201-203 Personal dependence under labour-service 203-204 General estimation of labour service 204-201

  • IV. The Decline of the Labour-Service System 205

Two types of labour-service 205-206 The significance of the differentiation of the peasantry 206-208 View of Mr. Stebut 209 Views in various publications 209-210

  • V. The Narodnik Attitude to the Problem 210

The idealisation or labour-service 210-211 Mr. Kablukov’s argument 21l-215

  • VI. The Story of Engelhardt’s Farm 215

The original condition of the farm and the nature of the gradual changes made in it 216-219

  • VII. The Employment of Machinery in Agriculture 219

Four periods in the development of agricultural machinery production 219-220 Incompleteness of official statistics 220-223 Data on the employment of various agricultural machines 223-229

  • VIII. The Significance of Machinery in Agriculture 228

The capitalist character of the employment or machinery 228-230 Results of the employment of machinery 230-235 The inconsistency of the Narodniks 235-237

  • IX. Wage-Labour in Agriculture 237

‘Agricultural outside employments’ 237, their significance 237-238, their scale 239-240 Number of agricultural workers in all European Russia 240-242

  • X. The Significance of Hired Labour in Agriculture 242

The conditions of agricultural workers 242-243 Specific forms of hire 243-245 The conditions of workers of small and big employers 245-246 First elements of public control 246-248 The appraisal of agricultural migration by the Narodniks 248-251

Chapter IV. The Growth of Commercial Agriculture 252

  • I. General Data on Agricultural Production in Post Reform Russia and on the Types of Commercial Agriculture 252

The production of cereals and potatoes in 1864-1865, 1870-1879, 1883-1887, 1885-1894, 252-253 Potato sowing and its significance 253-254 Areas of commercial agriculture 255 Mr. Kablukov’s arguments 256

  • II. The Commercial Grain-Farming Area 257

The shifting of the principal centre or cereal production 257 The significance of the outer regions as colonies 257- 258 The capitalist character or agriculture in this area 259-261

  • III. The Commercial Stock-Farming Area. General Data on the Development of Dairy Farming 261

The significance or stock farming in the different areas 261-262 The calculation of Messrs. Kovalevsky and Levitsky 263 The development of cheese-making 264-266 The incompleteness of official data 266 Technical progress 266-267

  • IV. Continuation. The Economy of Landlord Farming in the Area Described 267

The rationalisation’ of agriculture 267-268 ‘Amalgamated dairies’ and their significance 268-270 The formation of a home market 270 The migration of agricultural workers to the industrial gubernias 271 The more even distribution of jobs throughout the year 271-273 The small cultivators dependence and its estimation by Mr. V. V. 273-275

  • V. Continuation. The Differentiation of the Peasantry in the Dairy-Farming Area 275

The distribution or cows among the peasants 275-276 Details of St. Petersburg Uyezd 276-278 Progressive trends in peasant farming 279-280 The influence or this progress on the poor 280-282

  • VI. The Flax-Growing Area 282

The growth of commercial flax-growing 282-284 Exchange between different types of commercial agriculture 284 ‘Extremes’ in the flax area 285 Technical improvements 285-287

  • VII. The Technical Processing of Agricultural Produce 287

The significance of the factory or technical system of farming 287-288

1.) Distilling 288

The extent of agricultural distilling 288-289 The development and the significance of potato distilling 289- 292

2) Beet-Sugar Production 291

The growth of sugar-beet production 291-292 The progress of capitalist agriculture 292-294

3) Potato-Starch Production 294

Its growth 294-295 Two processes in the development of this branch of production 295 The starch ‘industry’ in Moscow Gubernia 295-297 and in Vladimir Gubernia 297-298

4) Vegetable Oil Production 298

The dual process of its development 298 Oil pressing as a cottage industry 299-300

5) Tobacco Growing 300

  • VIII. Industrial Vegetable and Fruit Growing; Suburban Farming 304

The growth or commercial fruit growing 304 and vegetable growing 304-305 Peasant vegetable growers in the St. Petersburg, Moscow and Yaroslavl gubernias 305-307 The hot-house industry 307 Industrial melon growing 307-309 Suburban farming and its characteristics 309-310

  • IX. Conclusions on the Significance of Capitalism in Russian Agriculture 310

1) On the transformation of agriculture into enterprise 310 2) The specific features of capitalism in agriculture 311-312 3) The formation of a home market for capitalism 312-313 4) The progressive historical role of capitalism in Russian agriculture 314-318

  • X. Narodnik Theories on Capitalism in Agriculture – ‘The Freeing of Winter Time’ 318

The narrow and stereotyped character of this theory 318 Its omission of highly important aspects of the process 318-323

  • XI. Continuation. – The Village Community – Marx’s View on Small-Scale Agriculture – Engels’s Opinion of the Contemporary Agricultural Crisis 32l

The Narodniks wrong presentation of the problem of the village community 323-325 Their misunderstanding of a passage in Capital 325-326 Marx’s estimation of peasant agriculture 326-327 His estimation of agricultural capitalism 327 Mr. N.- en’s inappropriate quotation 327-330

Chapter V. The First Stages of Capitalism in Industry 331

  • I. Domestic Industry and Handicrafts 331

The remnants of domestic industry 331 The extent or the prevalence of handicrafts 332-333, their basic features 333-334

  • II. Small Commodity-Producers in Industry. The Craft Spirit in the Small Industries 334

The transition from handicrafts to commodity production 334-335 The fear of competition 335-337

  • III. The Growth of Small Industries after the Reform. Two Forms of This Process and Its Significance 338

Causes of the growth of small industries 338 The settlement ot industrialists in the outer regions 339 The growth of small industries among the local population 339-341 The shift of capital 342-343 The connection between the growth of small industries and the differentiation oft the peasantry 343

  • IV. The differentiation of the Small Commodity-Producers. Data on House-to-House Censuses of Handicraftsmen in Moscow Gubernia 344

Presentation of the problem 344 The method of processing the data 344-346 Combined table and chart 347 and 349 Conclusions: wage-labour 348, 351, productivity of labour 351-353, incomes 355 The petty-bourgeois structure oft handicraft industries 355

  • V. Capitalist Simple Co-operation 356

Its significance and influence on production 356-359 Artels 359-360

  • VI. Merchant’s Capital in the Small Industries 360

The conditions that give rise to the buyer-up 360-362 Tradeswomen in the lace industry 362-364 Examples oft marketing organisation 364-366 Views or the Narodniks 366-367 Forms or merchants capital 367-3611

  • VII. ‘Industry and Agriculture’ 369

Data of the table 369-370 The agriculture or wage workers 371 ‘Land labourers’ 371-372 Other data concerning industry and agriculture 372-376 Length of the working period 376 Resume 376-378

  • VIII. ‘The Combination of Industry with Agriculture’ 378

The Narodniks’ theory 378 The forms in which industry is combined with agriculture and their diverse significance 378-380

  • IX. Some Remarks on the Pre-Capitalist Economy of Our Countryside 380

Chapter VI. Capitalist Manufacture and Capitalist Domestic Industry 384

  • I. The Rise of Manufacture and Its Main Features 384

The concept or manufacture 384, its dual origin 384-385 and significance 385

  • II. Capitalist Manufacture in Russian Industry 386

1) The Weaving Industries 386

2) Other Branches of the Textile Industry

The Felt Trade 390

3) The Hat-and-Cap and Hemp-and-Rope Trades 393

4) The Wood-Working Trades 397

5) The Processing of Livestock Produce. The Leather and Fur Trades 402

6) The Remaining Livestock Processing Trades 409

7) The Processing of Mineral Products 413

8) The Metal Trades. The Pavlovo Industries 415

9) Other Metal Trades 419

10) The Jewellery, Samovar and Accordion Trades 422

  • III. Technique in Manufacture. Division of Labour and Its Significance 427

Hand production 427-428, apprenticeship 427-428 Division of labour as a stage preparatory to large-scale machine industry 428-429, its influence on the workers 429- 431

  • IV. The Territorial Division of Labour and the Separation of Agriculture from Industry 431

Mr. Kharizomenov’s opinion 431-432 Non-agricultural centres 432-434 The transitional character of manufacture 434-435 The raising of the cultural level of the population 434-435

  • V. The Economic Structure of Manufacture 435

The circumstances of production 435-436 How Mr. Ovsyannikov and Kharizomenov describe it 436-438

  • VI. Merchant’s and Industrial Capital in Manufacture. The ‘Buyer-up’ and the ‘Factory Owner’ 438

The connection between the big and the small establishments 438-440 The error or the Narodniks 441

  • VII. Capitalist Domestic Industry as an Appendage of Manufacture 441

Its Incidence 441-442, its characteristic features 442-445, the conditions making tor its spread 445-446, its significance in the theory of the surplus-population 446-448

  • VIII. What Is ‘Handicraft’ Industry? 448

Some aggregate statistics on handicraftsmen 448- 450 The predominance of capitalistically employed workers 450-451 The vagueness or the term ‘handicraft’ and the abuse of it 451-453

ChapterVII. The Development of Large-Scale Machine Industry 454

  • I. The Scientific Conception of the Factory and the Significance of ‘Factory’ Statistics 454
  • II. Our Factory Statistics 456

Their sources 456 Publications of the 60s 457-458 The specific character of the Military Statistical Abstract 459-461 Mr. Orlov’s Directory 461-462 The Collections of the Department of Commerce and Manufactures 463-464 The Returns for Russia for 1884-85; Mr. Karjshev ‘s errors 464-465 Data of gubernia statistical committees 466 The List 466 Is the number of factories in Russia growing? 467-468

  • III. An Examination of Historico-Statistical Data on the Development of Large-Scale Industry 468

1) Textile Trades 469

2) Wood-Working Industries 474

3) Chemical, Livestock Product and Ceramic Industries 475

4) Metallurgical Industries 478

5) Food Industries 479

6) Excise-Paying and Other Trades 481

7) Conclusions 483

  • IV. The Development of the Mining Industry 484

The Urals, their specific features 484-488 The South 488-491 The Caucasus 491-492 The big and small mines in the Donets Basin 492-494 The significance of the data on the development of the mining industry 494- 496

  • V. Is the Number of Workers in Large Capitalist Enterprises Growing? 496

Data tor the years 1865 and 1890 496-499 Mistaken method of the Narodniks 499-507

  • VI. Steam-Engine Statistics 507

Data for the years 1875-1878 and 1892 507-509

  • VII. The Growth of Large Factories 509

Data tor the years 1866, 1879, 1890 and 1894-95 509- 514 The largest enterprises In factory industry and in the mining Industry 514-515 The errors of Mr. N.-on 515-517

  • VIII. The Distribution of Large-Scale Industry 518

Data on the leading centres of factory industry in the years 1879 and 1890 516-519 Three types of centres 5.19- 521 The classification of centres 521-523 The growth of rural factory centres and Its significance 523-525

  • IX. The Development of the Lumber and Building Industries 525

The growth of the lumber industry 525-526; its organisation 526-530 The growth of capitalism in the building industry 530-33

  • X. The Appendage to the Factory 534
  • XI. The Complete Separation of Industry from Agriculture 536

The error of the Narodniks 536-537 Moscow Zemstvo sanitary statistics 537-541

  • XII. Three Stages in the Development of Capitalism in Russian Industry 541

The connection between all the stages 541-43 Specific technical features 541-543 The growth of capitalist relationship 543-544 The character of the development of Industry 544-545 The separation of Industry from agriculture 545-548 Differences in living conditions 548- 550 The growth of the home market 550-551

Chapter VIII. The Formation of the Home Market 552

  • I. The Growth of Commodity Circulation 552

The development of the railways 552-553, water transport 553-554, commerce and the banks 554-557

  • II. The Growth of the Commercial and Industrial Population 557

1) The Growth of the Towns 557

2) The Significance of Home Colonisation 562

3) The Growth of Factory and of Commercial and Industrial Townships and Villages 566

4) Non-Agricultural Outside Employments 568

Non-agricultural outside employments 568-581, their size and growth 568-576, their progressive role 516-679, the appraisal of them by Narodnik writers 579-581

  • III. The Growth of the Employment of Wage-Labour 581

Approximate number of wage-workers 581-583 Capitalist surplus-population 583 The error of the Narodniks 583-586

  • IV. The Formation of a Home Market for Labour-Power 586

The main movements or wage-worker in connection with the size or wares 586-589 The formation or a home market 589-590 Mr. N-on’s ‘theory’ 590-591

  • V. The Significance of the Border Regions. Home or Foreign Market? 591

Capitalism’s urge for expansion 591-592 The example of the Caucasus 593-594 Two aspects of the process of the formation of a market 594-596

  • VI. The ‘Mission’ of Capitalism 596

The Increase In the productivity or social labour 596- 598 The socialisation of labour 598-600 The cause of differences with the Narodniks 600-601


  • I. Combined Table of Statistics on Small Peasant Industries of Moscow Gubernia (to Chapter V, p345) 600-601
  • II. Table of Statistics on the Factory Industry of European Russia (to Chapter VII, p456) 601
  • III. The Chief Centres of Factory Industry in European Russia (to Chapter VII, p519) 603

Uncritical Criticism. (Regarding Mr. P. Skvortsov’s Article ‘Commodity Fetishtsm’ in Nauchnove Obozreniye, No. 12, 1899) 609

  • I. 611
  • II. 618
  • III. 624

Notes 633

VI Lenin - Collected Works - 03

VI Lenin – Collected Works – 03








Volume Four – 1898-April 1901

VI Lenin 1897

VI Lenin 1897

Preface 11


On the Question of our Factory Statistics (Professor Karushev’s New Statistical Exploits) 13

Review. A Bogdanov, A Short Course of Economic Science, Moscow, 1807. Publ. A. Murinova’s Bookshop. 290pp. Price 2 rubles 46

A Note on the Question of the Market Theory (Apropos of the Polemic of Messrs. Tugan-Baranovsky and Bulgakov) 55


Review. Parvus. The World Market and the Agricultural Crisis, Economic Essays. Translated from the German by L. Y., St. Petersburg, 1898. Publ. O. N. Popova (Educational Library, Series 2, No. 2). 142 pp. Price 40 kopeks 65

Review. R, Goozdev, Kulak Usury, Its Social and Economic Significance. St. Petersburg, 1899. Publ. N. Gario 67

Review. Commercial and Industrial Russia. Handbook for Merchants and Factory Owners. Compiled under the Editorship of A. A. Blau, Head of the Statistical Division of the Department of Commerce and Manufactures. St. Petersburg, 1899. Price 10 rubles 70

Once More on the Theory of Realisation 74

Review. Karl Kautsky. Die Agrarjrage, Eine Uebersicht uber die Tendenzen der modernen Landwirtschaft und die Agrarpolitik. u.s.w. Stuttgart, Dietz, 1899 94

Review. J. A. Hobson. The Evolution of Modern Capitalism, Translated from the English. St. Petersburg, 1898. Publ. O. N. Popova. Price 1 rb. 50 kop 100

Capitalism in Agriculture (Kautsky’s Book and Mr. Bulgakov’s Article) 105

First Article 109

  • I. 110
  • II. 113
  • III. 119
  • IV. 131
  • V. 137

Second Article 146

  • I. 146
  • II.157

Reply to Mr. P. Nezhdanov 160

A Protest by Russian Social-democrats 167

Review. S, N. Prokopovich, The Working-Class Movement in the West 183

Review. Karl Kautsky. Bernstein und das sozialdemokratische Programm. Eine Antikritik 193

Articles for ‘Rabochaya Gazeta’ 205

Letter to the Editorial Group 207

Our Programme 210

Our Immediate Tasks 215

An Urgent Question 221

A Draft Programme of our Party 227

A Retrograde Trend in Russian Social-democracy 255

Apropos of the Profession de foi 286

Factory Courts 297

On Strikes 310


Draft of a Declaration of the Editorial Board of Iskra and Zarya 320

How the ‘Spark’ was Nearly Extinguished 333

Draft Agreement 350

Declaration of the Editorial Board of Iskra 351

Preface to the Pamphlet, May Days in Kharkov 357

The Urgent Tasks of Our Movement 366

The War in China 372

The Split in the Union of Russian Social-democrats Abroad 378

Note of December 29, 1900 380


Casual Notes 383

  • I. Beat – but Not to Death! 387
  • II. Why Accelerate the Vicissitude of the Times? 403
  • III. Objective Statistics 408

The Drafting of 183 Students into the Army 414

The Workers’ Party and the Peasantry 420

Notes 429

The Life and Work of VI Lenin. Outstanding Dates 457

VI Lenin - Collected Works - 04

VI Lenin – Collected Works – 04








Volume Five – May 1901-February 1902

Iskra No 4 - 1901 - 'Where to begin'

Iskra No 4 – 1901 – ‘Where to begin’

Preface 11


Where to Begin 13

Another Massacre 25

The Persecutors of the Zemstvo and the Hannibals of Liberalism 31

  • I. 36
  • II. 43
  • III. 48
  • IV. 55
  • V. 62
  • VI. 72

A Valuable Admission 81

The Lessons of the Crisis 89

The Serf-owners at Work 95

A Zemstvo Congress 101

The Agrarian Question and the ‘Critics of Marx’ 103

  • I. The ‘Law’ of Diminishing Returns 107
  • II. The Theory of Rent 119
  • III. Machinery in Agriculture 130
  • IV. The Abolition or the Antithesis Between Town and Country. Particular Questions Raised by the ‘Critics’ 146
  • V. ‘The Prosperity of Advanced, Modern Small Farms’ The Baden Example 159
  • VI. The Productivity of a Small and a Big Farm. An Example from East Prussia 167
  • VII. The Inquiry into Peasant Farming in Baden 182
  • VIII. General Statistics of German Agriculture for 1882 and 1895. The Question of the Medium Farms 194
  • IX. Dairy Farming and Agricultural Co-operative Societies in Germany. The Agricultural Population in Germany Divided According to its Position in the Economy 205

The ‘Unity’ Conference of R.S.D L.P. Organisations Abroad, September 21-22 (October 4-5), 1901 223

  • 1. Speech Delivered on September 21 (October 4) (Note from the Minutes) 225
  • 2. Questions Submitted to the Union of Russian Social-democrats Abroad at the ‘Unity’ Conference, September 21 (October 4), 1901 230

Fighting the Famine-stricken 231

A Reply to the St. Petersburg Committee 239

Party Affairs Abroad 241

Penal Servitude Regulations and Penal Servitude Sentences 243

Review of Home Affairs 251

  • I. Famine 253
  • II. Attitude Towards the Crisis and the Famine 274
  • III. The Third Element 281
  • IV. Two Speeches by Marshals of the Nobility 289

Preface to the Pamphlet Documents of the ‘Unity’ Conference 302

The Protest of the Finnish People 306

The Journal Svoboda 311

A Talk with Defenders of Economism 313

On the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Revolutionary Activity of G. V. Plekhanov 321

Demonstrations have Begun 322

On a Letter from Southern Workers 326

Anarchism and Socialism 327


Concerning the State Budget 331

Political Agitation and ‘The Class Point of View’ 337

Reply to ‘A Reader’ 344

What is to be Done? – Burning Questions of Our Movement 347

Preface 349

  • I. Dogmatism and ‘Freedom of Criticism’ 352

A. What Does ‘Freedom of Criticism’ Mean? 352

B. The New Advocates of ‘Freedom of Criticism’ 356

C. Criticism in Russia 361

D. Engels on the Importance of the Theoretical Struggle 368

  • II. The Spontaneity of the Masses and the Consciousness of the Social-Democrats 373

A. The Beginning of the Spontaneous Upsurge 374

B. Bowing to Spontaneity. Rabochaya Mysl 378

C. The Self-Emancipation Group and Rabocheye Dyelo 387

  • III. Trade-Unionist Politics and Social-Democratic Politics 397

A. Political Agitation and Its Restriction by the Economists 398

B. How Martynov Rendered Plekhanov More Profound 408

C. Political Exposures and ‘Training in Revolutionary Activity’ 412

D. What ls There in Common Between Economism and Terrorism? 417

E. The Working Class as Vanguard Fighter for Democracy 421

F. Once More ‘Slanderers’, Once More ‘Mystifiers’ 436

  • IV. The Primitiveness of the Economists and the Organisation of the Revolutionaries 440

A. What Is Primitiveness? 441

B. Primitiveness and Economism 444

C. Organisation of Workers and Organisation of Revolutionaries 451

D. The Scope of Organisational Work 467

E. ‘Conspirational’ Organisation and ‘Democratism’ 473

F. Local and All-Russian Work 482

  • V. The ‘Plan’ for an All-Russian Political Newspaper 492

A. Who Was Offended by the Article ‘Where To Begin’ 493

B. Can a Newspaper Be a Collective Organiser? 498

C. What type of Organisation Do We Require? 510

Conclusion 517

Appendix. The Attempt to Unite Iskra with Rabocheye Dyelo 521

Correction to What ls To Be Done? 528

Notes 531

The Life and Work of V. I. Lenin. Chronology 569

VI Lenin - Collected Works - 05

VI Lenin – Collected Works – 05








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