Capitalist China – the reality post-Mao

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Capitalist China – the reality post-Mao

On this page you will be able to read a series of articles and analyses of the situation as it developed in the People’s Republic of China very soon after the death of Comrade Mao in 1976.

In recent years organisations have mushroomed which seek to claim that China still follows the ‘socialist road’. The information included here seeks to challenge such a proposition.

The construction of socialism is not only about increasing the material wealth of a population. What many (but not all) of the population may have gained under the so-called ‘modernisations’ they have lost in their real control of the society, as they had between 1949 and 1976.

The overwhelming number of the documents here have been provided by the comrades at bannedthought. We thank them for their effort.

Communist Party of China

19th Party Congress: 2017

Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party, adopted at the 19th Party Congress, October 24, 2017, 28 pages.

17th Party Congress: 2007

Resolution of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the Amended Constitution of the CPC, adopted October 21, 2007, 8 pages.

Resolution of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the Report of its 16th Central Committee, adopted October 21, 2007, 9 pages.

Resolution of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the Report of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, adopted October 21, 2007, 3 pages.

Speech at a ceremony marking the centenary of the Communist Party of China, July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, 13 pages.

Chinese Government and Official Functions

Report on the work of the Government, 4th Session of the 13th National People’s Congress, Premier Li Keqiang, March 2021, 128 pages.

Speech at the Centenary of the Revolution of 1911, Liu Jun, Chairman of the All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese, October 9, 2011, 6 pages.

Speech at the Centenary of the Revolution of 1911, by Zhou Tienong, Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chairman of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang, October 9, 2011, 6 pages.

China’s Economy

China’s Socialist Economy, Xue Muqiao, China Knowledge Series, Beijing, New World Press, 1981, 340 pages.

Almanac of China’s economy, 1981, with economic statistics for 1949-1980, compiled by the Economic Research Centre, The State Council of the People’s Republic of China and the State Statistical Bureaux, editor in chief Xue Muqiao, Eurasia Press, Hong Kong, 1982, 1144 pages.

China’s Socialist Economy, Xue Muqiao, China Knowledge Series, Beijing, New World Press, 1986 revised edition, 332 pages.

New strategy for China’s economy, Ma Hong, China Studies Series, Beijing, New World Press, 1983, 176 pages.

Smashing the Communal Pot – formulation and development of China’s rural responsibility system, Wang Guichen, Zhou Qiren and others, China Studies Series, Beijing, New World Press, 1985, 208 pages.

Chinese reforms, inflation and the allocation of investment in a Socialist Economy, by Oktay Yenal, World Bank Internal Discussion Paper, Asia Regional Series, Report No. IDP 52, October 1989, 48 pages.

The facts and China’s position on China-US trade friction, ‘White Paper’ by the Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, September 25, 2018, in reaction to the trade war started by the Trump Administration, 72 pages.

Ten Crises: the political economy of China’s development 1949-2020, Wen Tiejun, Open Access, 2021, 539 pages. An unconventional book which ignores or blurs the fundamental distinction between the Maoist socialist period and the capitalist-imperialist period in China which developed after Mao’s death. Points of interest; but of course it is deeply and fundamentally bourgeois in outlook.

The Great Reversal – the privatization of China, 1978-1989, William Hinton, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1990, 191 pages.

China’s Military

Military and security developments involving the People’s Republic of China, 2020, Annual Report of the U.S. Secretary of Defense to Congress, 200 pages.

Understanding Chinese nuclear thinking, ed. by Li Bin and Tong Zhao, Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment, 2016, 286 pages. Expressing the point of view of the current Chinese political and military authorities as they wish it to be understood in the West.

Chinese lessons from other peoples’ wars, ed. by Andrew Scobell, David Lai and Roy Kamphausen, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, November 2011, 339 pages.

The People’s Liberation Army Navy: A Modern Navy with Chinese Characteristics, by the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence, August 2009, 51 pages.

Suppression of News and Ideas in China

In support of young left-wing activists detained and wanted for organizing a reading group on November 15, 2017, the Borderless Movement, March 2018, 5 pages.

Internet censorship and China’s new Online Publication Law, Dezan Shira and Associates, May 17, 2016, 3 pages.

Although this article focuses on the ramifications of this new censorship law for foreign corporations operating in China, it also has information of a more general character. It notes for example that in recent years under the regime of Xi Jinping China has expanded the fraction of the web sites in the world which it blocks from 14% to 25%. It says:

‘The [new Chinese Internet censorship] law stipulates that an internet publication cannot include any content that opposes the principles of the constitution, threatens national unity, sovereignty or territorial integrity or security, divulges state secrets, damages the reputation or interests of the state, incites ethnic hostility or discrimination, endangers social morals or ethnic cultural traditions, advocates heresy or feudal superstition, disseminates rumours, disturbs social order and stability, disseminates obscenity, pornography, gambling, violence, or incites crime or insults others or infringes on their legal rights and interests.’ [In other words, the Chinese rulers openly state that they will block anything and everything that they disapprove of, and that there will be no such thing as free speech on the Internet in China.]

China’s Xi calls for cooperation over Internet Regulation, AP, December 16, 2015, 2 pages. Quotes one commentator as saying: ‘Under the guise of sovereignty and security, the Chinese authorities are trying to rewrite the rules of the Internet so censorship and surveillance become the norm everywhere.’

China is leading jailer of journalists, Group Says, New York Times, December 15, 2015, 1 page.

China’s defiance stirs fears for missing dissident, New York Times, February 3, 2010, 3 pages. About the arrest and disappearance of human rights lawyer Gao Zhisheng.

Google, citing attack, threatens to exit China, New York Times, January 13, 2010, 3 pages.

Furious Google throws down gauntlet to China over censorship, Ars Technica, January 12, 2010, 4 pages.

Trial in China signals new limits on dissent, New York Times, December 24, 2009, 3 pages. About the trial of Liu Xiaobo, an advocate of bourgeois democracy.

Film makers barred from Chinese festival, New York Times, September 2, 2009.

Chinese Capitalist-Imperialism

Chinese Society Research — Phase I, a volume first published in Chinese in December 2020. Prepared by contemporary Chinese Maoists and presenting their extensive investigations into the current organization of capitalist production in China, industrial zones, factory conditions, class relations, wages and benefits, the attitudes of the workers and of management, the living conditions of the workers, etc. Includes investigations of a number of specific workplaces, interviews with some individuals, and a discussion of both the traditional and newly emerging petty bourgeois strata. English Version of this Book, translated by Nick G., Chairperson of the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist), August 2022, 173 pages.

Poor households mired in the cycle of poverty and illness, author unspecified, January 2020, 21 pages.

China is turning Ethiopia into a giant fast-fashion factory, Bill Donahue, Bloomberg Businessweek, Asia Edition, March 5, 2018, 12 pages. About the export of Chinese capital to Ethiopia and the effects it is having there.

Capital accumulation, private property and rising inequality in China, 1978-2015, a scholarly study by Thomas Piketty, Li Yang, and Gabriel Zucman, October 7, 2018, 41 pages.

Is China an Imperialist Country?, by N.B. Turner, et al. An extensive essay on the growth and development of China as a major contending imperialist power, together with discussion of the nature and changes within the current world imperialist system and of the contradictions within it,, March 2014, 129 pages.

The Political Economy of Chinese State Capitalism, Li Xing and Timothy M. Shaw, JCIR 1:1 2013, 26 pages.

Billions in hidden riches for family of Chinese Leader [Wen Jiabao], David Barboza, New York Times, October 25, 2012, 12 pages.

‘Princelings’ in China use family ties to gain riches, New York Times, May 17, 2012, 5 pages.

May Day means pay day for university student swindlers in Lanzhou, China, Jerry Leonard and Xie Yingjun, May 4, 2012, 7 pages. A telling little personal story illustrating how the once very militant workers’ holiday in Mao’s China has changed into just a vacation period, and one in which you might very well get swindled by the new class of ‘entrepreneurs’.

The Chinese Communist Party’s Capitalist Elite, an article about the huge number of members of the National People’s Congress who are capitalist billionaires, Bloomberg Businessweek, March 1, 2012, 2 pages.

The rise of China and its implications, Fred Engst, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing. This is the edited and approved version of this important essay, parts of which were presented at the ILPS 4th International Assembly in the Philippines on July 9, 2011. 15 pages.

China’s ‘State Capitalism’ sparks a global backlash, Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2010, 7 pages.

Chinese military seeks to extend its naval power, New York Times, April 23, 2010, 5 pages.

China emerges as a major exporter of capital, John Chan, World Socialist Web Site, May 19, 2009, 3 pages. [Note: While this article is from a Trotskyist publication, it seems accurate and quite useful to us.]

China-India maritime rivalry, Cdr. Gurpreet S. Khurana, Indian Defence Review, October-December 2009, 8 pages.

The realities of China today, Martin Hart-Lansberg, Against the Current, number 137, November-December 2008, 15 pages. Though the author is not a Maoist, and makes at least one very unsupported and unjustified criticism of Maoist economic policies, overall this article strongly debunks the notions of some people on the ‘left’ today that China is still a socialist country, or that it at least is supposedly advancing the welfare of the Chinese masses. It shows that nothing could be further from the truth!

China’s emerging role in the international financial system, speech by Chen Yuan, Governor, China Development Bank, Shanghai, November 10, 2008, 9 pages.

China offers India help to defeat Maoists, UPI Press report, October 27, 2005, 1 page.

Mass Struggles in China

Big events of 2020 for the labourers: The oppression by the bourgeoisie and the resistance of the proletariat, a revolutionary perspective, prepared by ‘Gonghao 51’, 21 pages. Includes an internal link to the original Chinese language version.

Workers, police clash in China’s Yanan; 100 Injured, Hong Kong Information Center for Human Rights and Democracy (via BBC), May 7, 2010, 2 pages.

They’re not going to take it: China’s women, facing pervasive discrimination, decide to fight for their rights, Newsweek, August 1, 2009, 3 pages.

Chinese workers beat manager to death; farmers block highway, Asia News, July 27, 2009.

Pro-Maoist Sentiment in Contemporary China

(N.B. Radio Free Asia is fully funded by the US Government. That should be taken into account when reading any articles they publish but some are included here for historical interest. Mind you, few of the other mainstream media sources are any better.)

History project of the Republic: the history and logic of revolution and restoration, by an anonymous group of Chinese Marxist-Leninist-Maoists, probably originally written in the 2016-2019 time frame. English translation, by Nick G., Chairperson of the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist), August 2022, 355 pages.

‘This book, banned in China, traces the history of all the major contradictions within the Communist Party of China both during and after the period of Mao Zedong’s leadership. It explains why the genuine Left was unable to carry on Chairman Mao’s behest to continue the revolution under the conditions of the dictatorship of the proletariat, and then examines the contradictions between the different groupings of capitalist-roaders who seized power after Mao’s death; the struggle between them, on the one hand, and their collusion, on the other, to strip the workers and peasants of their rights and to suppress them under a bourgeois state machine of inherent violence.’ From the translator’s introduction.

Democratic Socialism is Capitalism: A criticism of Xie Tao’s ‘Only Democratic Socialism can save China’, Wu Bing, 82 pages. [The original Chinese version, which appeared years ago on the website, is no longer available, and was written in March 2007. This is a 2022 English translation by Nick G., Chairman of the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist). Nick notes that though this article refers to ‘democratic socialism’, the issue is really about what is more commonly called ‘social-democracy’, which of course is not really socialism at all. ‘Wu Bing’ is a pseudonym meaning ‘armed soldier’, and the person criticized, Xie Tao, is a reactionary academic. Xie advocated for a freer development of capitalism in China under the cloak of what he called ‘democratic socialism’.

China’s Maoists mark death of Great Helmsman with tributes, street events, from the website of the so-called Radio Free Asia, September 9, 2021, 2 pages.

‘Who are our enemies?’ China’s bitter youths embrace Mao, Li Yuan, New York Times, July 8, 2021, 5 pages.

China’s ruling party cancels Maoist gatherings on Cultural Revolution anniversary, from the website of Radio Free Asia, May 17, 2021, 3 pages.

Anti-Capitalist tirades go viral in China: Marxist rhetoric is gaining currency among young, overworked netizens, The Economist, February 6, 2021, 3 pages.

New Years Greeting: the return of Marxism and the opening of a New Age, ‘Zuo Yi 23’, circa January 1, 2021, from a social media site in China, 14 pages.

Big events of 2020 for the labourers: the oppression by the bourgeoisie and the resistance of the proletariat, a summary of the year’s events by ‘Gonghao 51’, 24 pages.

Seven Maoist students detained in Beijing after talking to foreign media, from the website of Radio Free Asia, January 25, 2019, 3 pages.

Chinese police detain Marxist student leader on Mao’s birthday, from the website of Radio Free Asia, December 26, 2018, 3 pages. This student leader at Peking University was on his way to a meeting he organized on the 125 anniversary of the birth of Mao Zedong.

Marxist students detained, manhandled by security guards at Peking University, from the website of Radio Free Asia, December 28, 2018, 3 pages. This is a follow-up to the report above.

Police detain Maoist labour activists on campuses across China, from the website of Radio Free Asia, November 12, 2018, 3 pages. This is about the further spreading of Maoist struggle by youth which was originally sparked by the Jasic Workers’ Solidarity Group in Guandong.

Cornell University cuts ties with Chinese school after crackdown on students, Javier Hernández, New York Times, October 29, 2018, 2 pages. In connection with support by students at Renmin University in Beijing for the Jasic Workers’ struggle.

Maoists call on China’s official union to stand up for workers, follow-up report on the Jasic Workers’ Solidarity Group, from the website of Radio Free Asia, October 25, 2018, 2 pages. One of the prominent activists in the JWSG, Yue Xin, has not been seen in more than 60 days. She has apparently been arrested or exiled to the countryside. Other JWSG workers are also still detained in what can only be viewed as an attempted fascist suppression of the working class struggle.

China’s Government censors shut down references to Mao-inspired labour movement, further report on website of Radio Free Asia, August 21, 2018, 3 pages.

Dozens detained amid Maoist-led rights campaign at Chinese factory, report on website of Radio Free Asia, July 30, 2018, 4 pages.

Maoist labour campaigner ‘kidnapped’, believed detained, in China’s Guandong, report on website of Radio Free Asia, August 13, 2018, 4 pages. The Maoist woman referred to is Shen Mengyu. This is a follow-up to the next item above.

Hong Kong’s May 16 demonstration commemorating the 52 Anniversary of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, May 2018, 8 pages.

Maoist writer jailed for subversion, report on website of Radio Free Asia, January 19, 2012, 3 pages. About a 10-year prison sentence handed down to self-identified Maoist, Li Tie.

Yu Quan-yu, a truly unforgettable committed revolutionary in our era, Li Zhen-cheng. A remembrance of a Maoist revolutionary who was falsely labelled as a ‘rightist’ back in the 1950s, but who remained a revolutionary nevertheless. In both Chinese and English translation. August 17, 2010, 11 pages.

A memorial meeting for Chairman Mao and other martyrs, at Luoyang City, Henan Province. Posted on the ‘Utopia’ website ( on April 14, 2010. Includes a link to the video of the original memorial speech in Chinese.

Economic bust is big boom for Mao, an article in the Toronto Star about the Utopia Bookshop in Beijing, a centre for Maoist books and magazines. March 25, 2009, 4 pages.

Some thoughts regarding our future revolution, by a Revolutionary Old Guard, Wei Wei, 5 pages. This article was distributed on the Maoist Revolution email list in the U.S. on November 9, 2008, along with the notice that it was translated from Chinese from the web site. The author seems to take a fairly strong nationalist line, and views the current regime as that of a bureaucrat and comprador bourgeoisie (rather than a national bourgeoisie). But he also is a strong supporter of Paris Commune style democracy.

China: signs of ultra-leftist support to Maoists of India and Nepal, D. S. Rajan, October 5, 2005.

On December 24, 2004, Maoists in China get three year prison sentences for leafleting: a report on the case of the Zhengzhou Four, Monthly Review, January 2005, 5 pages.

Without rejection, there can be no rebirth, My declaration of withdrawal from the Party, by Zhang Lushi, an old Chinese Communist Party member, July 19, 2001, 5 pages. A very powerful and touching letter.

Other Documents

The present state, structure and operation of Party Organizations, from the ‘ABCs of the Communist Party of China’ series, n.d., but circa 2010 (when Hu Jintao was General Secretary), 28 pages.

Resolution on CPC History (1949-1981), claiming to be an ‘authoritative assessment of Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution’, including the ‘Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China [adopted by the 6th Plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of the CCP on June 27, 1981] and two shorter documents, Beijing, FLP, 1981, 127 pages. This is the official verdict on Mao and the GPCR by the capitalist-roaders who seized power in a coup d’état after Mao’s death.

Chinese support for the Palestinian People and Revolutionary Movements in the Gulf in the 1960s and their reversal in the 1970s, June 2016. No other information.

More on the People’s Republic of China

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